The 1090s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1090, and ended on December 31, 1099.
- 1 Events
- 1.1 1090
- 1.2 1091
- 1.3 1092
- 1.4 1093
- 1.5 1094
- 1.6 1095
- 1.7 1096
- 1.8 1097
- 1.9 1098
- 1.10 1099
- 2 Significant people
- 3 Births
- 4 Deaths
- 5 References
- A third Almoravid expedition is launched in Al-Andalus, designed to finally subdue the Taifa's Kingdoms. The cities of Córdoba, Seville, Granada, Málaga, Almería and Ronda fall to the troops of Sultan Yusuf ibn Tashfin.
- King Stephen II of Croatia becomes involved in an open conflict between factions of Croatian nobles, who reassert their traditional rights in their own counties.
- Hassan-i Sabbah founds the Nizari Ismaili state after taking control of the Alamut Castle and organising the military group called the Order of Assassins.
- Béjaïa (or Bugia) becomes the capital of the Hammadid Dynasty in modern Algeria. It becomes an important port and centre of culture.
Arts and Culture
- Troubadours begin playing in western Aquitaine (Poitou and Saintonge) and Gascony (approximate date).
Science and Technology
- Qin Guan, Chinese poet of the Song Dynasty, writes the Can Shu (Book of Sericulture), which describes a silk-reeling machine that has the world's oldest known mechanical belt drive.
- Spring – Tzachas, a Seljuk Turkish military commander, establishes an independent maritime state centred in the Ionian coastal city of Smyrna (modern-day İzmir). He proclaims himself emperor (basileus), and concludes an alliance with the Pechenegs in Thrace. Tzachas uses his fleet to blockade Constantinople by sea, while the Pechenegs besiege the capital by land.
- April 29 – Battle of Levounion: Emperor Alexios I supported by his allies defeats the Pechenegs' 80,000 men (including women and children) at the Evros River near Enos (modern Turkey). The Cumans and Byzantine forces fall upon the enemy camp, slaughtering all in their path. The Pechenegs are butchered so savagely, that they are almost wiped out.
- Spring – King Stephen II, the last member of the Trpimirović Dynasty, dies without leaving an heir after a 2-year reign. War and unrest breaks out in Croatia afterwards. King Ladislaus I of Hungary, on instigation of his sister, Queen Helena, intervenes in the conflict and occupies Croatia. He proclaims himself king, but is contested by the Croatian nobleman Petar Snačić.
- February – Norman conquest of Sicily: The Normans conquer Noto and complete the 30-year-long conquest of Sicily from the Moorish rulers. Duke Roger Borsa (a son of Robert Guiscard) surrenders his share in the castles of Calabria, and receives his inheritance of Palermo. He grants charters to various towns and encourages urban planning in Apulia and Calabria.
- Summer – The Norman invasion of Malta: A Norman fleet led by Count Roger I (Bosso) arrives in Malta. Roger disembarks his army, and besieges the island's capital Medina (modern-day Mdina). The inhabitants negotiate peace terms (by promising paying an annual tribute) and swear an oath of loyalty to Roger. On the way back, the Normans sack the island Gozo.
- July – The Abbadid Dynasty ruling in Al-Andalus (modern Spain) falls, when the Almoravid forces storm Seville. Confronted with this threat, Emir Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr Muhammad al-Aftas of Badajoz obtains the support of King Alfonso VI (the Brave) of Castile, in exchange for the Moorish positions on the Tagus River (Sintra, Santarém and Lisbon).
- Spring – King William II invades Normandy with a large army. His brothers, Henry and Robert Curthose, mobilizes mercenary forces to resist William during the siege at Mont-Saint-Michel. Henry is forced to surrender his estates of the Cotentin Peninsula in Normandy and signs a peace treaty.
- Summer – King Malcolm III of Scotland invades the north of England, and besieges Durham. The Normans led by William II marches north to oppose the Scots, but a conflict is averted. Malcolm is forced to accept the terms of the Treaty of Abernethy (see 1072) and pays homage to William.
- Cardiff Castle is constructed by Robert Fitzhamon, Norman lord of Gloucester (approximate date).
- October 17 – London tornado: A T8 tornado (roughly equal to an T4 tornado) occurs in London. The wooden London Bridge is demolished and the church of St. Mary-le-Bow is badly damaged.
- December – Athanasius VI bar Khamoro becomes (against his will) patriarch and head of the Syriac Orthodox Church in Antioch (until 1129).
- Summer – Emperor Alexios I (Komnenos) bribes one of Kilij Arslan's (sultan of the Sultanate of Rum) officials to recover Sinope (the capital of Paphlagonia), and neighbouring coastal regions. He uses the Byzantine fleet to defeat the Seljuk navy off the coast of Cius in Bithynia.
- January 14 – Vratislaus II, the first king of Bohemia, dies after a 6½-year reign and is succeeded by his brother Conrad I who becomes duke and not king because Vratislaus has been elevated to the royal dignity 'for life' by Emperor Henry IV (see 1085). Conrad dies at September 6 after a 8-month reign and is succeeded by his nephew Bretislav II (the eldest son of Vratislaus).
- Summer – King William II annexes Cumbria from the Scottish Celtic kingdom of Strathclyde, and builds Carlisle Castle.
- May 11 – Lincoln Cathedral, one of England's finest Gothic buildings, is consecrated.
- High tides cause great flooding in England and Scotland. The Kentish lands of Earl Godwin are inundated, becoming known as the Goodwin Sands.
- November 19 – Sultan Malik-Shah I dies after a 20-year reign while hunting. The Seljuk Empire falls into chaos, his brother Tutush I and rival successors carve up their own independent sultanates in the Middle East. Malik-Shah is succeeded by his son Mahmud I, but he does not gain control of the empire.
- Su Song, a Chinese statesman and scientist, publishes his Xin Yi Xiang Fa Yao, a treatise outlining the construction and operation of his complex astronomical clocktower, built in Kaifeng. It also includes a celestial atlas of five star maps.
- April 21 – The Diocese of Pisa is elevated to the dignity of an metropolitan archdiocese by Pope Urban II.
- May 21 – Synod of Szabolcs: King Ladislaus I assembles an council of the prelates of Hungary at the fortress of Szabolcs.
- April 13 – Grand Prince Vsevolod I Yaroslavich dies, after a 15-year reign. He is succeeded by Sviatopolk II, who is acknowledged by other princes as the senior son of Iziaslav I, and ascends the Kievan throne as ruler of the Kievan Rus'. His cousin Vladimir II, prince of Chernigov, becomes a bitter rival.
- May 26 – Battle of the Stugna River: The nomadic Cumans defeat an Kievan joint force led by the princes of Kievan Rus' at the Stugna River in the valley near Trepol. During the fightings Rostislav Vsevolodovich, prince of Pereyaslavl, drowns while fleeing the battle.
- September 22 – King Olaf III (the Peaceful) dies after a 26-year reign. He is succeeded by his son Magnus III (Barefoot) who is proclaimed ruler of Norway at the Borgarting (or the Thing), an assembly by lawspeakers, in the region of Viken.
- March 6 – Anselm, Italian Benedictine abbot and theologian, becomes archbishop of Canterbury, succeeding Lanfranc. The post of archbishop has been held open (since 1089) by King William II – William Rufus or William (the Red) – so he can collect for himself the church's income.
- November 13 – Battle of Alnwick: King Malcolm III invades Northumberland, but is killed by English forces under Earl Robert de Mowbray while besieging Alnwick Castle. He is succeeded by his brother Donald III (the Fair) who becomes ruler of Scotland.
- The Normans under Lord Robert Fitzhamon occupy southern Wales, constructing Cardiff and Pembroke Castles.
- April 8 – Construction of Winchester Cathedral by the Norman bishop Walkelin is completed.
- August 11 – Construction of Durham Cathedral begins, replacing the Saxon 'White Church'.
- Spring – Emperor Alexios I (Komnenos) sends a Byzantine expeditionary force under General Tatikios to Nicaea in an attempt to re-capture the city from the Seljuk Turks. However the arrival of Barkiyaruq's army en route the Byzantines. Alexios sends reinforcements, short of supplies, the Seljuk Turks retreat. Abu'l-Qasim, Seljuk governor of Nicaea, is defeated and forced to conclude a truce with Alexios.
- May – Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar (El Cid) completes his conquest of Valencia in Al-Andalus (modern Spain). He begins his rule (in the name of King Alfonso VI) of Valencia. The Almoravid campaign to regain the city fails.
- July 28 – William Bertrand dies and his margravial title of Provence is inherited by Raymond IV (Saint-Gilles) who becomes count of Toulouse (until 1105).
- May – Duncan II (son of the late King Duncan I) invades at the head of an army of Norman knights Scotland, aided by his half-brother Edmund. He succeeds his uncle, King Donald III (the Fair), as ruler of Scotland.
- November 12 – King Donald III mobilizes his army and kills Duncan II in battle in the Lowlands. He re-takes the Scottish throne, Edmund sides with Donald as co-ruler and is named as heir as he has no children.
- Sultan Mahmud I dies after a 2-year reign. He is succeeded by his brother Barkiyaruq (one of the Seljuk princess who claim the throne) as ruler of the Seljuk Empire.
- May 15 – The Cathedral of St. Agatha in Catania (Sicily) is consecrated by the Breton abbot Ansger.
- October 8 – Doge Vitale Faliero consecrates the new Basilica of San Marco in Venice.
- King Ladislaus I of Hungary founds a diocese (alongside the bishop's see) in Zagreb.
- March – Emperor Alexios I (Komnenos) send envoys to Pope Urban II, at the Council of Piacenza, and appeals to the Christian states of Western Europe for military aid against the Seljuk Turks. Urban responds favourably, hoping to heal the Great Schism of 40 years earlier, and to reunite the Catholic Church under papal primacy by helping the Eastern churches.
- Summer – The nomadic Cumans cross the Danube River and invade Thrace, to support the pretender Constantine Diogenes (son of the late Emperor Romanos IV). The Cumans occupy the province of Paristrion (located in the Lower Danube). Emperor Alexios I places Byzantine detachments to guard the passes over the Balkan Mountains, but they are bypassed.
- The Second County of Portugal is established by Count Henry of Burgundy. The Almoravids start pushing back the forces of King Alfonso VI (the Brave) to the positions they occupied a decade earlier. This offensive begins with the re-conquest of Lisbon, which had been given away to Castile (see 1091).
- July – Coloman (the Learned) begins to establish himself as ruler of Hungary, following the death of his uncle, King Ladislaus I (until 1116).
- August 18 – King Olaf I (Hunger) dies after a 9-year reign. He is succeeded by his brother Eric I (the Good) as ruler of Denmark.
- After attacking four Norwegian merchant ships (lying in the River Tyne), Robert Mowbray, earl of Northumberland, is called for by King William II (the Red) to explain his actions. Instead, Mowbray rises up in rebellion against William along with other Norman nobles. William leads an army and besieges Bamburgh Castle, Mowbray is captured after fleeing the stronghold.
- November 18 – The Council of Clermont begins. The synod is called by Pope Urban II to discuss sending the First Crusade to the Holy Land.
- November 27 – Urban II preaches the First Crusade at the Council of Clermont; Peter the Hermit begins to preach throughout France.
- November 28 – Urban II appoints Bishop Adhemar of Le Puy and Count Raymond IV (Saint-Gilles), to lead the First Crusade.
- The Valence Cathedral is consecrated in Valence (approximate date).
- Spring – Peter the Hermit begins his preaching of the First Crusade, traveling from Berry (in central France) across Champagne and down the Meuse Valley to Cologne (modern Germany). He gathers the People's Crusade (some 40,000 supporters), which departs about April 20. Peter's speeches appeal not only to nobles and knights, but also laborers, tradesmen and peasants (among them are former brigands and criminals).
- May – The People's Crusade, under Peter the Hermit, arrives at Sopron. King Coloman (the Learned) gives them permission to pass through Hungary, and to use the markets. Peter and his followers (some 20,000 men and woman) travel from Budapest southwards supported by knights, while lumbering wagons carries stores and a chest of money that he has collected for the journey.
- May – The Rhineland massacres: Members of the People's Crusade led by Count Emicho destroy most of the Jewish communities along the Rhine in a series of large pogroms in France and Germany. Thousands of Jews are massacred, driven to suicide, or forced to convert to Christianity. Estimates of the number of Jewish men, woman and children murdered are 2,000 to 12,000.
- May 8 – French members of the People's Crusade led by Walter Sans Avoir enter Hungary, without incidents they arrive at Semlin, and cross the Sava into Byzantine territory at Belgrade. Meanwhile, Walter demands food but he is refused entry, and the crusaders are forced to pillage the countryside. Eventually Walter is allowed to carry on to Niš, where he is provided with food.
- May 18 –26 – The Worms massacre: Members of the People's Crusade under Emicho besieges Worms in the Rhineland before killing at least 800 Jews, despite the intervention of Bishop Adalbert II. He tries to hide some of them in the bishop's palace, others chose to remain outside its walls. One of the victims is Minna of Worms, an influential Jew among the Christian nobility.
- May 27 – Members of the People's Crusade under Emicho massacre at least over 1,000 Jews in Mainz. Archbishop Ruthard tries to hide some of them in the cellars of Mainz Cathedral but the crusaders learn of this – and murder most of the Jews. Men, women, and children of all ages are slaughtered indiscriminately.
- May 30 – Members of the People's Crusade led by the priest Folkmar from Saxony persecute Jews in Prague, despite the opposition of the local Catholic hierarchy. Local citizens try to hide them in their own houses. Later the Jews manage to escape to safety in neighboring villages, but are slaughtered by hundreds.
- June – Members of the People's Crusade under Emicho sets out up the Main towards Hungary. Some followers break off from Emicho's army at Mainz and travel to Metz – where many Jews are persecuted and murdered. They proceed down the Rhine, massacring the Jews at Neuss, Wevelinghofen, and Xanten.
- June – The People's Crusade under Emicho are refused to enter Hungary on orders of Coloman, who sends troops to defend the bridge at Wieselburg. Emicho decides to build an alternative bridge and crosses the Danube. He besieges the fortress of Wieselburg, but is defeated and routed by the Hungarian army.
- June – Siege of Semlin: The People's Crusade led by Peter the Hermit arrive at Semlin. Hearing rumors of an attack from the Hungarian count Guz of Semlin on the rearguard; Geoffrey Burel assaults the castle, captures it by surprise, and defeats the Hungarian army. He plunders its supplies, herds and horses.
- June 26 – The People's Crusade (some 30,000 men) led by Peter the Hermit cross the Sava (stealing boats from the local fishermen) but are attacked by Pechenegs and Hungarian forces. The citizens of Belgrade flee and the crusaders pillage and burn the city. Peter travels for seven days, and arrives at Niš.
- July – The People's Crusade led by Peter the Hermit is defeated by the Byzantine army (mostly Hungarian and Bulgar mercenaries) in battle near Niš. The crusader supply train of some 2,000 wagons and Peter's treasury chest are captured by the Byzantines. About a quarter of the People's Crusade is lost.
- July 12 – The People's Crusade led by Peter the Hermit reach Sofia, where they meet envoys from Constantinople with orders to keep them supplied along the road. At Philippopolis the Greeks are so deeply moved by the suffering of Peter and his followers that the locals give them money, food and horses.
- August 1 – The People's Crusade led by Peter the Hermit arrives at Constantinople. He is received by Emperor Alexios I (Komnenos), who gives him financial support. The crusaders commit endless thefts in the suburbs. Peter combines his forces with Walter Sans Avoir and camps outside Constantinople.
- August 2 –6 – The People's Crusade are reorganizing their forces and gathering supplies. Alexios I advises Peter the Hermit to wait for reinforcements, but he ignores the advice. The People's army (some 30,000 men) is transported across the Bosporus – by the Byzantine fleet to Civetot (modern Turkey).
- August – Hugh (the Great), count of Vermandois (a brother of King Philip I), departs to join the First Crusade. He travels with a small army via the Alps to Rome. While sailing the Adriatic Sea from Bari to Dyrrachium his fleet is reduced by shipwreck. Hugh's own ship is stranded on the shore near Epirus.
- August – Godfrey of Bouillon, duke of Lower Lorraine, accompanied by his younger brother Baldwin, sets off to join the First Crusade (called by Pope Urban II) at the head of an army of some 40,000 men. He pledges his allegiance to Emperor Henry IV who issues an order not to harm Jewish communities.
- September – French forces (7,000 infantry and 300 knights) led by Geoffrey Burel raid around Nicaea (the capital of the Rum Seljuk Turks), plundering livestock and villages in the suburbs. They commit atrocities against local Christian peasants. Children are tortured and dismembered by the crusaders.
- September – German forces (5,000 infantry and 200 knights) led by Rainald of Breis raid the region of Nicaea. He advances eastward and assaults the Seljuk garrison in the castle of Xerigordos. They manage to capture; and, finding it well stock with provisions. The Greek Christians inside are spared.
- September 29 – Siege of Xerigordos: Sultan Kilij Arslan I sends a Seljuk expeditionary force to assault and recapture the castle of Xerigordos. They cut off the water supply, and Rainald of Breis is forced to surrender. Many of the crusaders are killed but others convert to Islam and become slaves.
- October – Robert II (Curthose), duke of Normandy (a brother of King William II), sets off to join the First Crusade. He assembles his army at Pontarlier – and travels through Italy to Rome. To raise money for the Crusade Robert mortgages the Norman duchy to William, for the sum of 10,000 pennies.
- October – Raymond IV (Saint-Gilles), count of Toulouse, sets off to join the First Crusade. He travels with his army, accompanied by his wife Elvira and Bishop Adhemar of Le Puy, via Provence through the Balkan route (along the coast of Croatia). He arrives at Dyrrachium to march to Thessaloniki.
- October – Bohemond I, Italo-Norman prince of Taranto (the son of Duke Robert Guiscard), departs to join the First Crusade. He crosses the Adriatic Sea from Brindisi with his army (some 4,000 men), and arrives in Vorë. While traveling, Bohemond gives strict orders not to plunder Byzantine villages.
- October 21 – Battle of Civetot: The Seljuk Turks led by Kilij Arslan I defeat the People's army (20,000 men) near Nicaea. The crusaders are slaughtered, and the camp at Civetot is captured. Only children are spared and send into slavery. Around 3,000 manages to escape back to Constantinople.
- December – The last of the four planned Crusader armies arrives at Constantinople, bringing the total numbers to 60,000 infantry and knights. Curiously there isn't a single king among the Crusaders leaders. At this time Philip I, William II, and Henry IV are all under excommunication by Urban II.
- December 25 – Godfrey of Bouillon is appointed the primary leader of the First Crusade, making it a largely French war in practice and causing the inhabitants of the Holy Land to refer to Europeans generally as "Franks". Godfrey and the other leaders agree to take an oath of loyalty to Alexios I.
- King Alfonso VI (the Brave) of Castile marries off his daughter Theresa to Henry of Burgundy (House of Burgundy). Alfonso gives as a dowry to Henry the County of Portugal, with Porto being the capital of the county.
- King Peter I of Aragon conquers Huesca from the Moors of the Taifa of Zaragoza. He expands his domains to the south, conquering land from Al Andalus (modern Spain). The capital is moved from Jaca to Huesca.
- The first documented teaching at the University of Oxford in England occurs.
- Norwich School is founded in England as an episcopal grammar school.
- In Ireland, the Diocese of Waterford is established.
- Spring – The Crusaders under Godfrey of Bouillon attack the Byzantine imperial palace at Blachernae. Norman forces led by Bohemond I join the Crusaders – he is not welcome in Constantinople because his father, Robert Guiscard, has invaded Illyria (territory belonging to the Byzantine Empire), and captured the cities of Dyrrhachium and Corfu (see 1084).
- May 14 – Siege of Nicaea: The Crusaders begin their campaign with the siege of Nicaea (the capital of the Sultanate of Rum), assigning their forces to different sections of the walls, which are well-defended with 200 towers. Towards the end of May an advance party of the Seljuk Turks is defeated by troops of Raymond IV (Saint-Gilles) and Robert II.
- June 19 – The Seljuk Turks surrender Nicaea to the Crusaders after a month siege. The Byzantines occupy the city; their commander Manuel Boutoumites is named by Emperor Alexios I (Komnenos) as doux of Nicaea. In the consternation the Crusaders are not allowed to plunder the city and are forced (again) to pledge their allegiance to Alexios.
- July 1 – Battle of Dorylaeum: The Crusaders defeat an Seljuk army led by Kilij Arslan I, ruler of the Sultanate of Rum, who wants revenge for the capture of Nicaea. During the battle many Crusaders are killed but the Seljuk Turks are forced to flee and abandon their tents and treasure after being surprised by the arrival of an second Crusader army.
- October 21 – Siege of Antioch: The Crusaders arrive outside the city and begin the siege. They can not impose a complete blockade on Antioch. The Seljuk garrison comes out of the city to harass Crusader siege-lines and intercept supply convoys (supported by a Genoese fleet of 12 galleys) from Saint Symeon and Alexandretta (modern Turkey).
- December 31 – Battle of Harenc: The Crusaders under the command of Bohemond I and Robert II defeat Seljuk forces from Aleppo, which try to relieve besieged Antioch.
- April/May – Battle of Gvozd Mountain: In an attempt to win the crown of the Kingdom of Croatia, the Hungarian army crosses the Drava River and invades Croatia. King Peter II of Croatia moves his residency at Knin Castle to defend his kingdom. The two armies meet each other near Gvozd Mountain (modern-day Petrova Gora). After a fierce battle Peter, the last Croatian king, is defeated and killed by the Hungarians.
- Summer – Almoravid forces launch a new campaign in Al-Andalus (modern Spain). Sultan Yusuf ibn Tashfin, leader of the Almoravid Empire, is honored with the title of Amir al Muslimin ("Commander of the Muslims").
- August 15 – Battle of Consuegra: The Castilian and Leonese army (some 30,000 men) of King Alfonso VI (the Brave) is defeated by Almoravid forces near the Castle of Consuegra.
- King Donald III (the Fair) is deposed by his nephew Edgar (who is supported by King William II) after a 4-year reign. Edgar (nicknamed Probus, "the Valliant") becomes ruler of Scotland (until 1107).
- William II orders the construction of Westminster Hall near Westminster Abbey in London. The hall is designed to hold banquets, ceremonies and coronations that take place in the Abbey near by.
- October – Anselm, archbishop of Canterbury, goes into exile. Conflicts between him and William II result in Anselm leaving England and heading for Rome. William confiscates Anselm's land.
- February 9 – Battle of the Lake of Antioch: The Crusaders under Bohemond I defeat a Seljuk relief force (some 12,000 men) led by Sultan Fakhr al-Mulk Radwan of Aleppo. Bohemond gathers 700 knights, and marches in the night to ambush the Seljuk Turks at the Lake of Antioch (modern Turkey). After several successful cavalry charges the Crusaders rout the Seljuk army, forcing Radwan to retreat back to Aleppo.
- March 10 – Baldwin of Boulogne enters Edessa, and is welcomed as liberator by the Armenian clergy. The local population massacres the Seljuk garrison and officials – or force them to flee. Baldwin is acknowledge as their ruler (or doux). He assumes the title of count and establishes the first crusader state. Baldwin marries Arda of Armenia, daughter of Lord Thoros of Marash, and consolidates his conquered territory.
- June 3 – Siege of Antioch: The Crusaders under Bohemond I capture Antioch after a 8-month siege. He established secret contact with Firouz, an Armenian guard who controlled the "Tower of the Two Sisters". He opened the gates and Bohemond entered the city. Thousands of Christians are massacred along with Muslims. Bohemond is named Prince of Antioch (under protest) and creates the Principality of Antioch.
- June 5 – Battle of Antioch: Emir Kerbogha, ruler (atabeg) of Mosul, arrives at Antioch with an Seljuk army (35,000 men) to relieve the city. He lays siege to the Crusaders who has just captured the city themselves (although they do not have full control of it). A Byzantine relief force led by Emperor Alexios I (Komnenos) turns back after Count Stephen of Blois convinces them that the situation in Antioch is hopeless.
- June 28 – Following the Holy Lance discovery by Peter Bartholomew in Antioch, the Crusaders under Bohemond I (leaving only 200 men) sorties from the city and defeats the Seljuk army. Kerbogha is forced to withdraw to Mosul, the garrison in the citadel surrenders to Bohemond personally (who raises his banner above the city) and the Crusaders occupy Antioch. The Crusade is delayed for the rest of the year.
- July 14 – Donation of Altavilla: Bohemond I grants commercial privileges and the right to use warehouses (fondaco) to the Republic of Genoa. This marks the beginning of Italian merchant settlements in the Levant.
- August 1 – Adhemar of Le Puy (or Aimar), French bishop and nominal leader of the First Crusade, dies during an epidemic (probably typhus). With this, Rome's direct control over the Crusade effectively ends.
- August – Fatimid forces under Caliph Al-Musta'li recapture Jerusalem and occupy Palestine. The Crusaders threaten the borders of the Fatimid Caliphate which already has lost the Emirate of Sicily (see 1091).
- December 12 – Siege of Ma'arra: The Crusaders capture the city of Ma'arra after a month's siege and massacre part of the population. Short of supplies, the army is accused of widespread cannibalism.
- June or July – Battle of Anglesey Sound: A Norwegian fleet led by King Magnus III (Barefoot) reverses an Anglo-Norman invasion of North Wales. Magnus conquers the Orkney Islands, the Hebrides and the Isle of Man.
- King Edgar of Scotland signs a treaty with Magnus III in which he agrees that the northern territories including the Hebrides belong to Norway. At Dunfermline Abbey, Edgar seeks support from Anselm of Canterbury.
- March 21 – Cîteaux Abbey, located in Saint-Nicolas-lès-Cîteaux, is founded by Robert of Molesme, founder of the Cistercian Order.
- October – The Council of Bari presided by Pope Urban II discusses relations between the Western and the Eastern Church.
- January 16 – The Crusaders, under Raymond IV, count of Toulouse (Raymond of Saint-Gilles), leave Antioch, and head south towards Jerusalem. They are joined by forces of Tancred (a nephew of Bohemond I) and Robert II, duke of Normandy. Raymond is given free passage and supplies, and accepts guides from the Emir of Shaizar (modern Syria), who conducts the army (6,000 men) across the Orontes River (between Shaizar and Hama).
- January 22 – The Crusaders, under Raymond IV, reach Masyaf, where a treaty is agreed to. They decide to continue the march, rather than to capture or destroy the town. The next day the Crusaders enter the deserted town of Rafaniyah, that provides them with much-needed supplies. Raymond moves into the Buqaia Valley, and takes the strategic Kurdish fortress of Hosn al-Akrad (the future Krak des Chevaliers castle).
- February – The Crusaders under Godfrey of Bouillon set out from Antioch to Latakia. They are joined by forces of Bohemond I and Robert II, count of Flanders. On their arrival, Bohemond decides to turn back to consolidate his power in Antioch. Godfrey and Robert move on to besiege the small sea-port of Jabala. After two weeks, the Emir of Jabala makes a truce, and accepts the suzerainty of the Crusaders.
- February 14 – The Crusaders under Raymond IV besiege the fortified town of Akkar – whose garrison is loyal to Jalal al-Mulk Abu'l-Hasan, emir of Tripoli (modern Lebanon). On May 13 after a 3-month siege the investment of Akkar is raised and Raymond orders the camp to be struck. The Crusader host, finally joined by the forces of Godfrey of Bouillon and Robert II, resumes his march southwards to Tripoli.
- February 17 – Raymond IV sends a small part of his army under Raymond Pilet to attack the port of Tortosa on the Syrian coast. The Crusaders led many fires around the port to make believe their number is greater then it is. Fooled by the deception, the governor and the garrison, flee by sea in the night leaving the port open for the Crusaders to capture. The port becomes strategically important for supplies.
- May – The Crusaders march past Tripoli, accompanied by guides provided by the emir; who lead them safely through the towns of Batroun and Byblos. On May 19 they cross the Dog River north of Beirut into Fatimid territory. There local governors supply the Crusaders with tribute and food in return for no damage to the agricultural area. The Fatimids keep no large troops in the north, except for small garrisons.
- May 20 – The Fatimid governor of Sidon refuses to cooperate and his garrison attacks the Crusader host while they are looting local villages. The Fatimids are repulsed, the towns further south generally follow the example of Beirut. The Crusaders move on to Tyre – Raymond IV decides to wait for two days to allow a force under Baldwin of Le Bourg (supported by knights from Antioch) to catch up with him.
- May 26 – The Crusaders march to Haifa and along the coast under Mount Carmel to Caesarea (modern Israel), where they rest for four days in order to celebrate Whitsun (Whit Sunday).
- June 2–6 – The Crusaders occupy Arsuf and turn inland towards Ramlah, where they reorganise for the march against Jerusalem. A Crusader force under Tancred liberates Bethlehem.
- June 7 – Siege of Jerusalem: The Crusaders reach the outskirts of Jerusalem, and begin the siege of the Holy City. Caliph Iftikhar al-Dawla offers a peace agreement but this is refused.
- June 13 – The Crusaders under Godfrey of Boullion launch their first assault on Jerusalem, while the Fatimid garrison and Jewish militia defend the northern wall at the Damascus Gate.
- June 17 – A naval squadron of six Genoese ships led by Guglielmo Embriaco (loaded with military materials) enters the port of Jaffa, all except one are trapped by a larger Fatimid fleet.
- July 8 – The Crusaders attempt to take Jerusalem by storm but are repulsed. In a procession they walk around the walls under leadership of priests in the hope the city would surrender.
- July 13 – The Crusader army (some 12,000 men) launch a final assault on Jerusalem. The attacks against the northern and southern wall are repulsed without establishing a foothold.
- July 15
- The Crusaders breach the walls of Jerusalem after a two-pronged assault. They enter the city and begin for two days a unprecedented slaughter against the Muslims and Jews.
- Iftikhar al-Dawla surrenders Jerusalem to Raymond IV in the Tower of David with a great sum of treasure in return for his life. He is escorted out of the city with his bodyguard.
- July 22 – The Kingdom of Jerusalem is established in the Middle East. Godfrey of Bouillon is named king (but refuses to be crowned) and takes the title Advocatus Sancti Sepulchri.
- August 10 – The Crusaders under Godfrey of Bouillon (supported by 1,200–1,300 knights) assemble at Yibna (Ibelin) – close to the coast and almost halfway from Jaffa to Ascalon.
- August 12 – Battle of Ascalon: The Crusader army (some 10,000 men) decisively defeat the Fatimids who are sent to relieve Jerusalem. Vizier Al-Afdal is forced to retreat to Egypt.
- November – A Crusader army under Bohemond I travels south to begin a pilgrimage to Jerusalem. They are accompanied by Baldwin of Boulogne, brother of Godfrey of Bouillon.
- December 21 – The Crusaders under Bohemond I and Baldwin arrive at Jerusalem. Four days later, Daimbert, archbishop of Pisa, is installed as the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem.
- The commune in Emilia founds the Modena Cathedral, dedicated to the patron saint Geminianus. The Italian sculptor Wiligelmo creates reliefs with Genesis scenes.
- July 29 – Pope Urban II (or Urbanus) dies after a 9-year pontificate at Rome. He is succeeded by Paschal II as the 160th pope of the Catholic Church.
- ^ Gilbert Meynier (2010). L'Algérie cœur du Maghreb classique. De l'ouverture islamo-arabe au repli (658-1518). Paris: La Découverte; p. 83.
- ^ Steven Runciman (1952). A History of the Crusades. Vol II: The Kingdom of Jerusalem, pp. 96–97. ISBN 978-0-241-29876-3.
- ^ Brian Todd Carey (2012). Road to Manzikert: Byzantine and Islamic Warfare (527–1071), p. 160. ISBN 978-1-84884-215-1.
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- ^ Brian Todd Carey (2012). Road to Manzikert: Byzantine and Islamic Warfare (527–1071), p. 160. ISBN 978-1-84884-215-1.
- ^ "Carlisle Castle" . English Heritage. Archived from the original on 2008-01-10. Retrieved 2007-12-21.
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- ^ Stratton, J. M. (1969). Agricultural Records. London: John Baker. ISBN 0-212-97022-4.
- ^ Basil Dmytryshyn (2000). Medieval Russia: A sourcebook 850–1700, p. 60. Academic International Press.
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- ^ a b Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 56–58. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2.
- ^ Timothy Venning (2015). A Chronology of the Crusades, p. 24. ISBN 978-1-138-80269-8.
- ^ Picard C. (1997). La mer et les musulmans d'Occident au Moyen Age. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.
- ^ Potter, Philip J. (2009). Gothic Kings of Britain: The Lives of 31 Medieval Rulers (1016–1399), pp. 127–128. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland. ISBN 978-0-7864-4038-2.
- ^ Steven Runciman (1951). A History of the Crusades. Volume I: The First Crusade and the Foundation of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, p. 101. ISBN 978-0-141-98550-3.
- ^ Gerd Mentgen. Crusades in Antisemitism: A Historical Encyclopedia of Prejudice and Persecution (Vol 1), ed. Richard S. Levy, pp. 151–53.
- ^ Steven Runciman (1951). A History of the Crusades. Volume I: The First Crusade and the Foundation of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, p. 102. ISBN 978-0-141-98550-3.
- ^ Chazan, R. (1996). European Jwery and the First Crusade, p. 122. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-20506-2.
- ^ Steven Runciman (1951). A History of the Crusades. Volume I: The First Crusade and the Foundation of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, p. 115. ISBN 978-0-141-98550-3.
- ^ Steven Runciman (1951). A History of the Crusades. Volume I: The First Crusade and the Foundation of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, pp. 116–117. ISBN 978-0-141-98550-3.
- ^ Steven Runciman (1951). A History of the Crusades. Volume I: The First Crusade and the Foundation of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, p. 104. ISBN 978-0-141-98550-3.
- ^ Steven Runciman (1951). A History of the Crusades. Volume I: The First Crusade and the Foundation of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, p. 105. ISBN 978-0-141-98550-3.
- ^ Steven Runciman (1951). A History of the Crusades. Volume I: The First Crusade and the Foundation of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, pp. 107–108. ISBN 978-0-141-98550-3.
- ^ Steven Runciman (1951). A History of the Crusades. Volume I: The First Crusade and the Foundation of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, p. 109. ISBN 978-0-141-98550-3.
- ^ Catlos, Brian A. (2004). The victors and the vanquished: Christians and Muslims of Catalonia and Aragon, 1050-1300 . Cambridge University Press. p. 13. ISBN 0-521-82234-3.
- ^ Abels, Richard Philip; Bernard S. Bachrach (2001). The Normans and their adversaries at war . Woodbridge: Boydell & Brewer. p. 92. ISBN 0-85115-847-1.
- ^ a b Rickard, J. "Antioch, crusader siege of, 21 October 1097-3 June 1098" . Retrieved 4 January 2012.
- ^ Rickard, J. "Battle of Harenc, 9 February 1098" . Retrieved 4 January 2012.
- ^ Picard C. (1997). La mer et les musulmans d'Occident au Moyen Age. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.
- ^ Abels, Richard Philip; Bernard S. Bachrach (2001). The Normans and their adversaries at war . Woodbridge: Boydell & Brewer. p. 92. ISBN 0-85115-847-1.
- ^ Tyerman, Christopher (2006). God's War: A New History of the Crusades, p. 134. The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-02387-1.
- ^ Andrew Roberts (2011). Great Commanders of the Medieval World (454–1582), p. 121. ISBN 978-0-85738-589-5.
- ^ Rickard, J. "Battle of the Orontes, 28 June 1098 (First Crusade)" . Retrieved 4 January 2012.
- ^ Benvenuti, Gino (1985). Le Repubbliche Marinare. Amalfi, Pisa, Genova e Venezia. Rome: Newton & Compton Editori. p. 34. ISBN 88-8289-529-7.
- ^ Siecienski 2010, pp. 117-118. sfn error: no target: CITEREFSiecienski2010 (help)
- ^ Steven Runciman (1951). A History of the Crusades. Volume I: The First Crusade and the Foundation of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, p. 221. ISBN 978-0-141-98550-3.
- ^ Steven Runciman (1951). A History of the Crusades. Volume I: The First Crusade and the Foundation of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, p. 222. ISBN 978-0-141-98550-3.
- ^ Steven Runciman (1951). A History of the Crusades. Volume I: The First Crusade and the Foundation of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, p. 224. ISBN 978-0-141-98550-3.
- ^ David Nicolle (2003). The First Crusade 1096–99 - Conquest of the Holy Land, pp. 69–70. Osprey Publishing: Campaign 132. ISBN 978-1-84176-515-0.
- ^ Steven Runciman (1951). A History of the Crusades. Volume I: The First Crusade and the Foundation of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, p. 223. ISBN 978-0-141-98550-3.
- ^ Steven Runciman (1951). A History of the Crusades. Volume I: The First Crusade and the Foundation of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, pp. 227–228. ISBN 978-0-141-98550-3.
- ^ Steven Runciman (1951). A History of the Crusades. Volume I: The First Crusade and the Foundation of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, p. 228. ISBN 978-0-141-98550-3.
- ^ David Nicolle (2003). The First Crusade 1096–99 - Conquest of the Holy Land, p. 71. Osprey Publishing: Campaign 132. ISBN 978-1-84176-515-0.
- ^ a b Rickard, J. "Siege of Jerusalem, 9 June-18 July 1099" . Retrieved 4 January 2012.
- ^ David Nicolle (2003). The First Crusade 1096–99 - Conquest of the Holy Land, p. 73. Osprey Publishing: Campaign 132. ISBN 978-1-84176-515-0.
- ^ David Nicolle (2003). The First Crusade 1096–99 - Conquest of the Holy Land, pp. 73–76. Osprey Publishing: Campaign 132. ISBN 978-1-84176-515-0.
- ^ David Nicolle (2003). The First Crusade 1096–99 - Conquest of the Holy Land, p. 76. Osprey Publishing: Campaign 132. ISBN 978-1-84176-515-0.
- ^ Steven Runciman (1951). A History of the Crusades. Vol I: The First Crusade and the Foundation of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, p. 236. ISBN 978-0-141-98550-3.
- ^ Steven Runciman (1951). A History of the Crusades. Vol I: The First Crusade and the Foundation of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, p. 237. ISBN 978-0-141-98550-3.
- ^ Steven Runciman (1951). A History of the Crusades. Vol I: The First Crusade and the Foundation of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, p. 242. ISBN 978-0-141-98550-3.
- ^ David Nicolle (2003). The First Crusade 1096–99 - Conquest of the Holy Land, p. 83. Osprey Publishing: Campaign 132. ISBN 978-1-84176-515-0.
- ^ Rickard, J. "Ascalon, battle of, 12 August 1099" . Retrieved 4 January 2012.
- ^ Steven Runciman (1951). A History of the Crusades. Vol I: The First Crusade and the Foundation of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, p. 250. ISBN 978-0-141-98550-3.
- ^ Steven Runciman (1951). A History of the Crusades. Vol I: The First Crusade and the Foundation of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, p. 251. ISBN 978-0-141-98550-3.
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