The 1370s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1370, and ended on December 31, 1379.
- January – Edward, the Black Prince, gives up the administration of Aquitaine and returns to England, because of his poor health and heavy debts.
- February 17 – Rival brothers Ivan Sratsimir and Ivan Shishman become co-Emperors of Bulgaria, after the death of their father, Ivan Alexander. Bulgaria is weakened by the split.
- February 22 – Robert II becomes the first Stuart king of Scotland, after the death of his uncle, David II.
- April 9 – Emperor Go-En'yu of Japan succeeds Emperor Go-Kōgon of Japan, becoming the 5th and last of the Northern Ashikaga Pretenders.
- August 22 – Battle of Baesweiler: Brabant is unexpectedly defeated by the Duchy of Jülich.
- September 21 – John of Gaunt, son of King Edward III of England, marries Constance of Castile, daughter of King Pedro of Castile, giving John of Gaunt a claim to the throne of Castile.
- September 26 – Battle of Maritsa: Most of the nobility in Serbia are killed by the Ottomans.
- December – Lazar succeeds his distant cousin, Stefan Uroš V, as ruler of Serbia, but declines the title of Tsar.
- Charterhouse Carthusian Monastery is founded in Aldersgate, London.
- The first widely accepted historical reference is made to playing cards (in Spain).
- Polish priest Andrzej Jastrzębiec becomes the first bishop of Siret, thus bringing Catholicism to Moldavia.
- Zhao Bing Fa becomes King of Mong Mao (in present day south China/north Myanmar), after the death of his father, Si Ke Fa.
- Kalamegha claims the vacant title of King of Cambodia, after the power of the Thai invaders from Ayutthaya begins to weaken. The Ayutthayans are finally expelled in 1375.
- Byzantine co-emperor John V Palaiologos pledges loyalty to the Ottoman Empire, to prevent the Turks from invading Constantinople.
- The Hongwu Emperor of the Ming Dynasty in China introduces the census registration system of lijia, or the hundreds-and-tithing system, throughout the Yangzi Valley. This system groups households into units of ten and groups of one hundred, whereupon their capacities for paying taxes and providing the state with corvée labor service can be assessed. The system becomes fully operational in 1381, when it counts 59,873,305 people living in China (the historian Timothy Brook asserts that the number was much higher, somewhere between 65 million and 75 million).
- Louis I of Hungary takes Severin again, but the Vlachs will recover it in 1376–1377.
- Bristol in England is made an independent county.
- The city of Phnom Penh (now the capital city of Cambodia) is founded.
- Philip II, Prince of Taranto hands over the rule of Achaea (now southern Greece) to his cousin, Joanna I of Naples.
- Leo V succeeds his distant cousin, Constantine IV, as King of Armenian Cilicia (now southern Turkey).
- A city wall is built around Lisbon, Portugal to resist invasion by Castile.
- Tran Kinh succeeds Tran Phu as King of Vietnam.
- Byzantine co-emperor Andronikos IV Palaiologos rebels against his father, John V Palaiologos, for agreeing to let Constantinople become a vassal of the Ottoman Empire. After the rebellion fails, Ottoman Emperor Murad I commands John V Palaiologos to blind his son.
- The death of Sultan Muhammad as-Said begins a period of political instability in Morocco.
- Merton College Library is built in Oxford, England.
- The Adina Mosque is built in Bengal.
- The Chinese emperor of the Ming Dynasty, the Hongwu Emperor, suspends the traditional civil service examination system, after complaining that the 120 new jinshi degree-holders are too incompetent to hold office; he instead relies solely upon a system of recommendations, until the civil service exams are reinstated in 1384.
- Battle of Gardiki: The Principality of Achaea defeats the Despotate of the Morea.
- Acamapichtli became ruler of the Aztecs
- Coluccio Salutati is appointed Chancellor of Florence.
- Heirin-ji Temple is built near Tokyo.
- Petru succeeds as ruler of Moldavia (now Moldova & eastern Romania). He is the first ruler from the dynastic House of Bogdan.
- The Russian town of Kostroma is destroyed by the ushkuinik pirates from Novgorod.
- Mujahid Shah succeeds his father, Mohammad Shah I, as Sultan of the Bahmanid Empire in Deccan, southern India.
- Moscow and Tver sign a truce. Tver agrees to help Moscow fight the Blue Horde.
- In Nanjing, capital of the Ming Dynasty of China, a bureau secretary of the Ministry of Justice, Ru Taisu, sends a 17,000 character-long memorial to the throne, to be read aloud to the Hongwu Emperor. By the 16,370th character, the emperor has been offended by several passages, and has Ru Taisu summoned to court and flogged for the perceived insult. The next day, having had the remaining characters read to him, he likes four of Ru's recommendations, and instates these in reforms. Ru is nevertheless castigated for having forced the emperor to hear thousands of characters before getting to the part with true substance. The last 500 characters are elevated in court as the model-type memorial that all officials should aspire to create while writing their own.
- March – The peace treaty between England and France is extended until April, 1377.
- March 31 – Pope Gregory XI excommunicates all members of the government of Florence, and places the city under an interdict.
- April 28 – The Good Parliament begins in England (so called because its members attempted to reform the corrupt Royal Council on that date).
- May 3 – Olav IV Haakonsson is elected King Oluf II of Denmark, following the death of his grandfather, Valdemar IV, in 1375.
- June – Catherine of Siena visits Pope Gregory XI in Avignon, to attempt to persuade him to make peace with Florence, and move the Papacy back to Rome.
- June 7 – The dying Prince Edward summons his father, Edward III, and brother, John of Gaunt, and makes them swear to uphold the claim to the throne of his son Richard; Edward is the first "English" Prince of Wales not to become King of England.
- July 10 – The Good Parliament is dissolved (at that time, it was the longest Parliament to have sat in England).
- August 12 – With the help of the Genoese, Byzantine co-emperor Andronicus IV Palaeologus invades Constantinople and dethrones his father, John V Palaeologus, as co-emperor. John V Palaeologus is taken prisoner.
- September – John of Gaunt summons religious reformer John Wyclif to appear before the Royal Council.
- November 20 – Richard of Bordeaux, son of the Black Prince, is created Prince of Wales in succession to his father.
- December 25 – John of Gaunt presents his nephew, Richard of Bordeaux, to the feudatories of the realm and swears to uphold Richard's right to succeed Edward III.
- January 17 – Pope Gregory XI moves the Papacy back from Avignon to Rome.
- January 27 – The Bad Parliament begins sitting in England. Influenced by John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, it undoes the work done by the Good Parliament, the previous year, to reduce corruption in the Royal Council. It also introduces a poll tax.
- February – The Pope's representative in northern Italy, Robert of Geneva (the future antipope Clement VII), pillages Cesena, and 4,000 antipapal rebels are massacred.
- March 2 – The Bad Parliament dissolves.
- May 22 – Pope Gregory XI issues five Bulls condemning the opinion of John Wycliffe, that Catholic priests should live in poverty, like the twelve disciples of Jesus.
- July 16 – Richard II, the 10-year-old grandson of Edward III, is crowned. A minority government is established, and a series of continual councils rule on his behalf until 1381.
- July 27 – Fourteen-year-old Maria of Sicily succeeds her father, Frederick the Simple.
- August – The Hongwu Emperor of the Ming dynasty of China scraps the Office of Reports Inspection (established in 1370) for a new Office of Transmission, in his efforts to create a more efficient communicatory system in the empire. A month before this he noted that anyone could send memorials to the throne; commoners often did, although the only times their petitions were read aloud to the emperor, was when they called for the impeachment of local officials, that were not up to par with their official duties.
- August 2 – Battle on Pyana River: The Russians are defeated, while their commander drowns in the river.
- October 13 – Richard II's first parliament meets.
- October 26 – Tvrtko I of Bosnia is crowned.
- A sermon by a German monk states "the game of cards has come to us this year", and prohibitions against cards are issued by Prince John of Castile, and the cities of Florence and Basel.
- Radu I succeeds Vladislav I as Prince of Wallachia (now southern Romania).
- The Trezzo sull'Adda Bridge is completed, and becomes the longest arch bridge in the world to be built for four centuries.
- Sayf ad-Din Barquq leads a revolt against the Mamluk Sultan of Egypt, Alah-ad-Din Ali.
- Harihara II succeeds Bukka Raya I, as ruler of the Vijayanagara Empire (now in southern India).
- Informed that Khan Urus of the White Horde has died, Timur of the Timurid Empire sends Tokhtamysh to take the Horde throne, but is defeated by Urus' son, Timur Malik.
- King U of Goryeo adopts the Ming calendar, and begs to be invested by the Hongwu Emperor.
- Tran Hien succeeds Tran Kính, as King of Vietnam.
- A rebellion against the Majapahit Empire is quashed in Sumatra.
- March – In England, John Wycliffe tries to promote his ideas for Catholic reform by laying his theses before Parliament, and making them public in a tract. He is subsequently summoned before the Archbishop of Canterbury, Simon of Sudbury, at the episcopal palace at Lambeth, to defend his actions.
- April 9 – Following the death of Pope Gregory XI, and riots in Rome calling for a Roman pope, the cardinals, who are mostly French, elect Pope Urban VI (Bartolomeo Prignano, Archbishop of Bari) as the 202nd Pope.
- July – Revolt of the Ciompi: Discontented wool carders briefly take over the government of Florence.
- August 4 – Gian Galeazzo Visconti succeeds his father, Galeazzo II Visconti, as ruler of Milan.
- September – A contract is set up between Richard le Scrope, 1st Baron Scrope of Bolton and the mason Johan Lewyn, for the construction of Bolton Castle.
- September 20 – Unhappy with Pope Urban's critical attitude towards them, the majority of the cardinals meet at Fondi, elect Clement VII as antipope, and establish a rival papal court at Avignon. This split within the Catholic Church becomes known as the Western Schism.
- November 10 – Estimated appearance date of Halley's Comet.
- November 29 – Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor, dies in Prague. He is succeeded by his son, Wenceslaus, as King of Bohemia, but the office of Holy Roman Emperor falls into abeyance, until Charles's son Sigismund is crowned in 1433.
- Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV visits his nephew Charles V of France, to publicly celebrate the friendship between their two nations.
- France, Aragon, Castile and León, Cyprus, Burgundy, Savoy, Naples and Scotland choose to recognise Antipope Clement VII. Denmark, England, Flanders, the Holy Roman Empire, Hungary, northern Italy, Ireland, Norway, Poland and Sweden continue to recognise Pope Urban VI.
- Dmitri Donskoi of Moscow & Vladimir resists a small invasion, by the Mongol Blue Horde.
- Tokhtamysh dethrones Timur Malik, as Khan of the White Horde.
- Kara Osman establishes the Turkomans of the White Sheep Dynasty at Diyarbakır, in present-day southeast Turkey.
- The Turks capture the town of Ihtiman, in west Bulgaria.
- Uskhal Khan succeeds his father, Biligtü Khan, as ruler of the Yuan Dynasty in Mongolia.
- Balša II succeeds his father, Durađ I, as ruler of Zeta (now Montenegro).
- Tai Bian succeeds Zhao Bing Fa, as King of Mong Mao (now northern Myanmar).
- Da'ud Shah succeeds his assassinated nephew, Aladdin Mujahid Shah, as Bahmani Sultan in present-day southern India. Da'ud Shah is assassinated in the same year, and is succeeded by Mohammed Shah II.
- Sa'im al-Dahr is hanged, for blowing the nose off the Sphinx.
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