The 990s decade ran from January 1, 990, to December 31, 999.
- June – The Pax Ecclesiae, an edict by the Catholic Church, is promulgated. Held at three synods in different parts of southern and central France (at Charroux, Narbonne and Puy), it attempts to outlaw acts of war against non-combatants and the clergy.
- March 1: In Rouen, Pope John XV ratifies the first Truce of God, between Æthelred the Unready and Richard I of Normandy.
- March 29: Bishop Adalberon imprisons the treasonous Duke Charles of Lorraine and his nephew Arnulf, the Archbishop of Reims. Adalberon delivers the two men to King Hugh Capet, who imprisons them and their family in Orléans. The cities of Reims and Laon are returned to Capet.
- April 5: 991 Damascus earthquake in Syria: According to historian George Elmacin (13th century), the earthquake caused the fall of 1,000 houses in Damascus itself, and many people were trapped in their ruins and died. The village of Beglabec was reportedly engulfed, due to the earthquake.
- Spring: Byzantine Emperor Basil II begins a campaign against the Bulgarians.
- June 15: Theophanu dies in Nijmegen, and Adelaide of Italy assumes full regency over her grandson, Otto III.
- June 17 – 18: The royal council of Saint-Basle de Verzy is marked by opposition between the bishops and the monks. Gerbert d'Aurillac is elected as the deposed Arnulf's successor as the Archbishop of Reims, to the anger of Pope John XV, who had no involvement in the decision.
- August 11: Following a raid by Olaf Tryggvason at the mouth of the River Thames, ealdorman Byrhtnoth is killed in the Battle of Maldon in Essex, which is commemorated in the Old English poem The Battle of Maldon. Æthelred the Unready is forced to pay a tribute of 22,000 pounds of silver for Tryggvason to withdraw his troops; this is the first in a series of Danegelds.
- November 19: The beginning of the reign of Al-Qadir, Abbasid Caliph of Baghdad, under the tutelage of the Buyids and following the deposition of At-Ta'i.
- 995 Balu earthquake. It reportedly affected the Armenian areas of Balu, Cop'k (or Covk'), Palnatun (or Palin), and the districts of Hasteank and Xorjean. The areas affected were districts in what is currently the border area between Armenia and Turkey.
- Spring – King Otto III starts his first expedition to Italy from Regensburg, and proceeds over the Brenner Pass. News of Otto's arrival prompts Crescentius II (the Younger), patrician (the de facto ruler) of Rome, to invite Pope John XV (exiled in Tuscany) back to Rome. Otto arrives in Verona, and receives ambassadors of Doge Pietro II Orseolo of Venice.
- May 21 – Otto III, 16, is crowned Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire at St. Peter's Basilica, and claims also the title of King of Italy. His grandmother, Adelaide, retires to a convent she has founded at Seltz (Alsace). Otto puts down a Roman rebellion; a number of nobles (including Crescentius II) are banished for their crimes.
- October 24 – King Hugh I Capet dies in Paris after a 9-year reign and is interred in the Basilica of St. Denis. He is succeeded by his 24-year-old son Robert II (the Pious) as king of France. Robert tries (during his reign) to increase his power, by pressing his claim of feudal lands that becomes vacant. This results in many territorial disputes.
- November 1 – Otto III grants the Bavarian bishopric of Freising 30 "royal hides" of land (about 800 hectares, or 2,000 acres - 800 hectares is 2,000 acres) in Neuhofen an der Ybbs (Lower Austria). A document (the oldest known) marks the first use of the name Ostarrîchi, meaning "Eastern Realm" (Austria in Old High German).
- November 20 – Richard I (the Fearless), duke of Normandy, dies after a 55-year reign. He is succeeded by his young son Richard II. During his minority, Rodulf of Ivry (his uncle), who wields the power as regent puts down a peasants revolt at the beginning of Richard's reign.
- Al-Mansur, the de facto ruler of Al-Andalus, assaults and partially destroys the city of Santiago de Compostella. He is accompanied in his raid by Christian Portuguese lords, who all receive a share of the booty. On their way, they sack the cities of Zamora and León.
- Summer – Roman of Bulgaria dies in captivity in Constantinople. He is succeeded by his brother Samuel (a member of the Cometopuli Dynasty) who takes the Bulgarian title of tsar. He possibly receives his 'imperial crown' from Gregory V (approximate date).
- King Stephen Držislav of Croatia dies after a 28-year reign. His three sons, Svetoslav, Krešimir III and Gojslav, open a violent contest for the throne, weakening the kingdom and allowing Samuel to encroach on the Croatian possessions along the Adriatic.
- Winter – Emperor Otto III travels to Italy, leaving the government of the Holy Roman Empire in the hands of his aunt, Matilda of Quedlinburg. He is accompanied by Bishop Gilbert of Aurillac, his teacher and advisor.
- Trondheim is founded by King Olav Tryggvason. This will function as the main city and capital of Norway, until Bergen is founded in 1070.
- Spring – Pope Gregory V is exiled during a rebellion led by Crescentius II (the younger), patrician (the de facto ruler) of Rome. The Crescentii family appoints Giovanni Filagato (former tutor of Otto III) as an antipope under the name John XVI (or XVII), until 998.
- April 23 – Adalbert, exiled bishop of Prague, organises a mission to convert the Old Prussians in north-east Poland. On his way, Adalbert is murdered by pagans on the Baltic coast. His body is bought back for its weight in gold by Duke Bolesław I (the Brave).
- The first documented reference of Gdańsk is made by Adalbert. During his mission he baptises the inhabitants of the city called Gyddannyzc.
By place and name
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. (March 2016)
- November 11 – Gisela of Swabia, Holy Roman Empress (d. 1043)
- Adamo Abate, Italian Benedictine abbot (approximate date)
- Al-Qadi Abu Ya'la, Arab Hanbali scholar and jurist (d. 1066)
- Bi Sheng, Chinese inventor of movable type printing (d. 1051)
- Chananel ben Chushiel, Tunisian Jewish rabbi (d. 1053)
- Conrad II (the Elder), Holy Roman Emperor (d. 1039)
- Edmund II (Ironside), king of England (d. 1016)
- Grigor Magistros, Armenian prince (d. 1058)
- John Scotus, bishop of Mecklenburg (d. 1066)
- John Vladimir, Serbian prince (approximate date)
- Kálfr Árnason, Norwegian chieftain (approximate date)
- Mieszko II, king of Poland (approximate date)
- Nissim ben Jacob, Tunisian Jewish rabbi (d. 1062)
- Theobald of Dorat, French monk and saint (d. 1070)
- Theodoric II, margrave of Lower Lusatia (d. 1034)
- Thietmar, margrave of the Saxon Ostmark (d. 1030)
- Tughril, sultan of the Seljuk Empire (d. 1063)
- Yaakov ben Yakar, German Jewish rabbi (d. 1064)
- Zhang Xian, Chinese poet and writer (d. 1078)
- Abu'l-Fadl Bayhaqi, Persian historian and writer (d. 1077)
- Cnut (the Great), king of Denmark, Norway and England (d. 1035)
- Dominic Loricatus, Italian priest and hermit (d. 1060)
- Frederick II, duke of Upper Lorraine (approximate date)
- Herman II, archbishop of Cologne (approximate date)
- Hemma of Gurk, German noblewoman (d. 1045)
- Ogive of Luxembourg, countess of Flanders (d. 1030)
- Olaf II Haraldsson (St. Olaf), king of Norway (d. 1030)
- Reginar V, French nobleman (approximate date)
- Shaykh Tusi, Persian Shia scholar (d. 1067)
- William I, Norman nobleman (approximate date)
- March 15 – Siegfried I (the Older), German nobleman
- March 25 – Nicodemus of Mammola, Italian monk and saint
- April 23 – Ekkehard II (the Courtier), Swiss monk and abbot
- June 15 – Theophanu, Holy Roman Empress and regent
- July 26 – Fujiwara no Kaneie, Japanese statesman (b. 929)
- September 16 – Folcuin, Frankish abbot of Saint Bertin
- December 10 – Folcmar (Poppo), bishop of Utrecht
- Al-Saghani, Persian astronomer and historian of science
- Al-Tamimi, Arab writer and physician (approximate date)
- Dunash ben Labrat, Arab Jewish commentator (b. 920)
- Indra Pala, ruler of the Pala Dynasty (India) (b. 960)
- Kiyohara no Motosuke, Japanese nobleman (b. 908)
- Nazif ibn Yumn, Melkite Christian mathematician and translator
- Oliba Cabreta, count of Cerdanya and Besalú (Spain)
- Qarghuyah, Hamdanid administrator and governor
- Sahl ben Matzliah, Jewish philosopher (b. 910)
- Urard Mac Coise, Irish poet (Ollamh Érenn)
- March 1 – En'yū, emperor of Japan (b. 959)
- April 2 – Bardas Skleros, Byzantine general
- April 4 – Reginold, bishop of Eichstätt
- May 11 – Heriward, Frankish abbot
- May 20 – Piligrim, bishop of Passau
- August 11 – Byrhtnoth, ealdorman of Essex
- Aleramo, marquess of Montferrat and Liguria
- Al-Muqaddasi, Arab Muslim geographer
- Ashot-Sahak, king of Vaspurakan (Armenia)
- Bakjur, Hamdanid mercenary and governor
- Gausfred I, count of Empúries and Roussillon
- Ibn Babawayh, Persian Shi'ite scholar
- Meng Xuanzhe, prince of Later Shu (b. 937)
- Nakatsukasa, Japanese waka poet (b. 912)
- Ōnakatomi no Yoshinobu, Japanese nobleman (b. 921)
- Pan Mei, Chinese general and statesman
- Qian Weijun, king of Wuyue (Ten Kingdoms) (b. 955)
- Sa'd al-Dawla, Hamdanid emir (b. 952)
- Suero Gundemáriz, Spanish nobleman
- Taira no Kanemori, Japanese nobleman
- Ya'qub ibn Killis, Fatimid vizier (b. 930)
- February 1 – Jawhar al-Siqilli, Fatimid general
- February 29 – Oswald, archbishop of Worcester
- May 25 – Mieszko I, prince (duke) of Poland
- June 15 – Michael I, Kievan metropolitan bishop
- June 27 – Conan I, duke of Brittany
- July 1 – Heonjeong, queen of Goryeo (Korea) (b. 961)
- August 23 – Volkold, bishop of Meissen
- December 3 – Lothar II, German nobleman
- Æthelwine, ealdorman of East Anglia
- Abu al-Hassan al-Amiri, Persian philosopher
- Adso of Montier-en-Der, Frankish abbot (b. 920)
- Fujiwara no Nakafumi, Japanese waka poet (b. 923)
- Fujiwara no Tamemitsu, Japanese statesman (b. 942)
- Herbert of Wetterau, German nobleman
- Liu Jiyuan, emperor of Northern Han
- Maelpeadair Ua Tolaid, Irish abbot
- Marino Cassianico, bishop of Venice
- March 13 – Odo I, German nobleman
- October 19 – Conrad I, king of Burgundy
- December 9 – Egbert, archbishop of Trier
- Arnulf (or Aernout), count of Friesland
- Borrell II, count of Barcelona and Urgell
- Charles, duke of Lower Lorraine (b. 953)
- David II, prince of Tao-Klarjeti (Georgia)
- Landenulf II, Lombard prince of Capua
- Maelcairearda, king of Uí Briúin (Ireland)
- Minamoto no Masanobu, Japanese nobleman (b. 920)
- William I, French nobleman (b. 950)
- February 3 – William IV, duke of Aquitaine (b. 937)
- April 4 – Egbert (the One-Eyed), German nobleman
- April 23 – Gerard of Toul, German priest and bishop
- May 11 – Majolus of Cluny, Frankish priest and abbot
- June 23 – Lothair Udo I, German nobleman (b. 950)
- June 24 – Abu Isa al-Warraq, Arab scholar (b. 889)
- July 8 – Richardis, margravine consort of Austria
- July 10 – Leopold I, margrave of Austria (b. 940)
- October 28 – Sigeric, archbishop of Canterbury
- October 31 – Wolfgang, bishop of Regensburg
- Bagrat II, king of Iberia-Kartli (Georgia) (b. 937)
- Fujiwara no Takamitsu, Japanese waka poet
- Ibn Juljul, Andalusian physician (approximate date)
- Sancho Garcés II, king of Navarre (Spain)
- March 30 – Sahib ibn Abbad, Persian statesman
- May 10 – Baldwin I (or Boudewijn), bishop of Utrecht
- May 16 – Fujiwara no Michitaka, Japanese nobleman (b. 953)
- June 13 – Fujiwara no Michikane, Japanese nobleman (b. 961)
- Abu 'Abdallah Muhammad, Afrighid ruler of Khwarezm
- Al-Mansur ibn Buluggin, Zirid ruler of Ifriqiyah
- Bernard I (the Suspicious), Frankish nobleman
- Egill Skallagrímsson, Viking poet (approximate date)
- Eric VI (the Victorious), Viking king of Sweden
- García Fernández, count of Castile and Álava
- Gebhard II, bishop of Constance (b. 949)
- Gerberga of Lorraine, Frankish noblewoman
- Haakon Sigurdsson, Viking ruler (jarl) of Norway
- Henry II (the Wrangler), duke of Bavaria (b. 951)
- Herbert III (the Younger), Frankish nobleman
- Kenneth II (the Fratricide), king of Alba (Scotland)
- Lady Finella, Scottish noblewoman and assassin
- Michitsuna no Haha, Japanese female poet
- Mstivoj, Obodrite prince (approximate date)
- Song, empress of the Song Dynasty (b. 952)
- March 12 – Odo I, Count of Blois (Eudes), French nobleman
- April 1 – John XV, pope of the Catholic Church
- October 14 – Al-Aziz Billah, Fatimid caliph (b. 955)
- October 24 – Hugh I Capet, king of France (b. 941)
- November 20 – Richard I, duke of Normandy (b. 932)
- Abu Talib al-Makki, Shafi'i jurist and hadith scholar
- Li Fang, Chinese scholar and encyclopedist (b. 925)
- Gilla Pátraic mac Donnchada, king of Osraige (Ireland)
- Herman I, Count Palatine of Lotharingia (the Slender), German nobleman (b. 945)
- Ibn Abi Zayd, Muslim imam and scholar (b. 922)
- Ki no Tokibumi, Japanese waka poet (b. 922)
- Strachkvas, Bohemian prince and chronicler
- Takashina no Takako, Japanese female poet
- April 23 – Adalbert of Prague, Bohemian bishop
- May 8 – Tai Zong, Chinese emperor (b. 939)
- July 23 – Nuh II, Samanid emir (b. 963)
- August 20 – Conrad I, duke of Swabia
- October 6 – Minamoto no Mitsunaka, Japanese samurai (b. 912)
- November 29 – Seongjong, Korean king (b. 961)
- Abu Bakr Ibn Al-Qutia, Andalusian historian
- Constantine III, king of Alba (Scotland)
- Géza (or Gejza), Grand Prince of Hungary
- Gonzalo Menéndez, Portuguese nobleman
- Gonzalo Sánchez, count of Aragon (Spain)
- Ibn Battah al-Ukbari, Arab theologian (b. 917)
- Idwal ap Meurig, king of Gwynedd (Wales)
- Máel Coluim, king of Strathclyde (Scotland)
- Waldrada of Tuscany, dogaressa of Venice
- Ma'mun I ibn Muhammad, ruler of Khwarezm
- Roman, ruler (tsar) of the Bulgarian Empire
- Sabuktigin, founder of the Ghaznavid Dynasty
- Stephen Držislav (Dirzislaus), king of Croatia
- Tailapa II, ruler of the Western Chalukya Empire
- Teresa Ansúrez, queen and regent of León
- July 15 – Abu al-Wafa' Buzjani, Persian mathematician (b. 940)
- July 19 – Damian Dalassenos, Byzantine governor (doux)
- August 8 – Seo Hui, Korean politician and diplomat (b. 942)
- August 19 – Fujiwara no Sukemasa, Japanese statesman (b. 944)
- August 24 – Sisinnius II, patriarch of Constantinople
- October 28 – Sigfried, count of the Ardennes (Luxembourg)
- Æthelweard, English ealdorman and historian (approximate date)
- Koppány (or Cupan), Hungarian nobleman (approximate date)
- Landulf of Carcano, Lombard chronicler and archbishop
- Nikon the Metanoeite, Byzantine monk and preacher
- Samsam al-Dawla, emir of the Buyid Dynasty (b. 963)
- Yelü Xiuge, general and politician of the Liao Dynasty
- February 7 – Boleslaus II (the Pious), duke of Bohemia
- February 18 – Gregory V, pope of the Catholic Church (b. 972)
- June 11 – Ebergar (or Everger), archbishop of Cologne
- November 4 – Gregor von Burtscheid, German abbot
- November 29 – Li Chun'an, Chinese merchant (b. 921)
- December 16 – Adelaide, empress regent of the Holy Roman Empire (b. 931)
- Alfred of Malmesbury (or Aelfric), English abbot and writer
- Cao Bin, Chinese general and governor (jiedushi) (b. 931)
- Ceallach ua Maílcorgus, Irish chief poet of Connacht
- Maredudd ab Owain, king of Gwynedd (Wales) (approximate date)
- Matilda, German princess-abbess and daughter of Otto I (b. 955)
- Muirgheas mac Aedh, king of Uí Díarmata (Ireland)
- Subh of Córdoba, mother and regent of Hisham II
- Yelü Xiezhen, Chinese general and politician
- ^ Antonopoulos, 1980
- ^ John Haywood (1995). The Historical Atlas of the Vikings: Raids on Æthelred's Kingdom, pp. 118–119. ISBN 978-0-140-51328-8.
- ^ J. Norwich (1991). Byzantium: The Apogee, p. 257. ISBN 0-394-53779-3.
- ^ Bernard S. Bachrach, Warfare and Military Organization in Pre-Crusade Europe (Ashgate Publishing, Aldershot, UK and Burlington, Vermont, 2002), IX, p. 66.
- ^ Mekhaldi, Florian; Muscheler, Raimund; Adolphi, Florian; Aldahan, Ala; Beer, Jürg; McConnell, Joseph R.; Possnert, Göran; Sigl, Michael; Svensson, Anders; Synal, Hans-Arno; Welten, Kees C. (2015-10-26). "Multiradionuclide evidence for the solar origin of the cosmic-ray events of AD 774/5 and 993/4" . Nature Communications. 6 (1): 8611. doi:10.1038/ncomms9611 . ISSN 2041-1723 .
- ^ Reuter, Timothy (1992). Germany in the Early Middle Ages, 800-1036, London and New York.
- ^ Reuter, Timothy (1999). The New Cambridge Medieval History, Volume III, p. 257. ISBN 978-0-521-36447-8.
- ^ John Haywood (1995). The Historical Atlas of the Vikings: Raids on Æthelred's Kingdom, p. 119. ISBN 978-0-140-51328-8.
- ^ Read, Piers Paul (1999). The Templars. Weidenfeld & Nicolson, Orion Publishing Group. ISBN 0-297-84267-6.
- ^ "Boleslaus II the Pious" . www.kralovskacesta.cz. Retrieved 15 September 2012.
- ^ Twitchett, Denis; Tietze, Klaus-Peter (1994). The Cambridge History of China, Volume 6, pp. 43–153. ISBN 0-521-24331-9.
- ^ Guidoboni, Traina, 1995, p. 126-127
- ^ François Neveux, A Brief History of the Normans (Constable and Robinson, 2008) p. 74.
- ^ Gil, Moshe (1997). A History of Palestine, 634–1099, pp. 369–370. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-59984-9.
- ^ Paul Stephenson (2003). The Legend of Basil the Bulgar-Slayer, Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-81530-4.
- ^ Collins, Roger (1983). Early Medieval Spain, p. 199. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-22464-8.
- ^ Christine Schefte (20 June 2012). "Hva husker du fra 1000-årsjubileet?" (in Norwegian). Adressa. Retrieved 5 March 2016.
- ^ Richard Brzezinski (1990). History of Poland: The Piast Dynasty - Bolesław the Brave, p.16. ISBN 83-7212-019-6.
- ^ John Norwich (1991). Byzantium: The Apogee, pp. 255–256. ISBN 0-394-53779-3.
- ^ John Norwich (1991). Byzantium: The Apogee, p. 257. ISBN 0-394-53779-3.
- ^ Reuter, Timothy (1992). The New Cambridge Medieval History, Volume III, p. 258. ISBN 978-0-521-36447-8.
- ^ James Palmer (2014). The Apocalypse in the Early Middle Ages, p. 215. Cambridge University Press.
- ^ Gil, Moshe (1997). A History of Palestine, 634–1099, pp. 369–370. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-59984-9.
- ^ Uji Travel: Byodoin Temple - Japan Guide (Retrieved August 4, 2017).
- ^ "Conrad II - Holy Roman emperor" . Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
- ^ "Gregory V | pope" . Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 8 May 2019.
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