9th century


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The 9th century was a period from 801 (DCCCI) through 900 (CM) in accordance with the Julian calendar.

The field of algebra was founded by the Muslim polymath Al-Khwarizmi. The battle between the Abbasid Caliph Al-Ma'mun and Islamic Scholar Ahmad ibn Hanbal occurred.

Contents

West Africa


Southeastern Nigeria

Around the 9th century, the Edo people of what is now southeastern Nigeria developed bronze casts of humans, animals, and legendary creatures. These bronzes, which were used as vessels, amulets, pendants, and sacrificial tools, are among the earliest made bronzes ever found in Nigeria. Most items were part of a burial of a nobleman culture in the northern part of the Benin Empire. Evidence of long distance trade between Benin and Portugal was also discovered through the thousands of glass beads found at Old Cairo at the workshops of Fustat.

The development of the Benin Kingdom can be attributed to the proficiency at advanced metallurgy seen in the bronze jewellery crafted by local artisans.

Ghana Empire

The Ghana (Wagadu) Empire (before c. 830 until c. 1235) was located in what is now southeastern Mauritania and western Mali. It is considered the first of the Sahelian Kingdoms, which would exist in some form until the early 20th century.

Western Europe


Britain and Ireland

Britain experienced a great influx of Viking peoples in the 9th century as the Viking Age continued from the previous century. The kingdoms of the Heptarchy were gradually conquered by the Danes, who set up Anglo-Saxon puppet rulers in each kingdom. This invasion was achieved by a huge military force known as the Great Heathen Army, which was supposedly led by Ivar the Boneless, Halfdan Ragnarsson, and Guthrum. This Danish army first arrived in Britain in 865 in East Anglia. After conquering that kingdom, the army proceeded to capture the city of York (Jorvik) and establish the kingdom of Jorvik. The Danes went on to subjugate the kingdom of Northumbria and to take all but the western portion of Mercia. The remaining kingdom of Wessex was the only kingdom of the Heptarchy left. Alfred the Great managed to maintain his kingdom of Wessex and push back the Viking incursions, relieving the neighbouring kingdoms from the threat of the Danes following his famous victory over them at the Battle of Ethandun in 878. Alfred re-established Anglo-Saxon rule over the western half of Mercia, and the Danelaw was established which separated Mercia into halves, the eastern half remaining under the control of the Danes.

Ireland was also affected by the Viking expansion across the North Sea. Extensive raids were carried out all along the coast and eventually, permanent settlements were established, such as that of Dublin in 841. Particular targets for these raids were the monasteries on the western coast of Ireland, as they provided a rich source for loot. On such raids the Vikings set up impermanent camps, which were called longphorts by the Irish—this period of Viking raids on the coasts of Ireland has been named the longphort phase after these types of settlements. Ireland in the 9th century was organised into an amalgam of small kingdoms, called tuatha. These kingdoms were sometimes grouped together and ruled by a single, provincial ruler. If such a ruler could establish and maintain authority over a portion of these tuatha, he was sometimes granted the title of High King.

Scotland also experienced significant Viking incursions during the 9th century. The Vikings established themselves in coastal regions, usually in northern Scotland, and in the northern islands such as Orkney and Shetland. The Viking invasion and settlement in Scotland provided a contributing factor in the collapse of the kingdoms of the Picts, who inhabited most of Scotland at the time. Not only were the Pictish realms either destroyed or severely weakened, the Viking invasion and settlements may have been the reason for the movement of Kenneth MacAlpin, the king of Dál Riata at that time. The kingdom of Dál Riata was located on the western coast of Scotland, and Viking incursions destroyed it after the death of its previous king, Áed mac Boanta in 839, according to the Annals of Ulster. This may have caused the new king, MacAlpin, to move to the east, and conquer the remnants of the Pictish realms. MacAlpin became king of the Picts in 843 and later kings would be titled as the King of Alba or King of Scots.

Art of the 9th century

Events


Inventions, discoveries, introductions


See also


References


  1. ^ Apley, Alice. "Igbo-Ukwu (ca. 9th century)" . Metropolitan Museum of Art. Archived from the original on 4 December 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-23.
  2. ^ a b Dumarçay (1991).
  3. ^ a b Paul Michel Munoz (2007). Early Kingdoms of the Indonesian Archipelago and the Malay Peninsula. Singapore: Didier Millet. p. 143. ISBN 978-981-4155-67-0.
  4. ^ Soekmono (1976), page 9.
  5. ^ Miksic (1990)
  6. ^ "Succession of the Carolingian Empire, 843 CE" . Cmunce.org. Columbia Model United Nations Conference and Exposition. Archived from the original on 25 December 2014. Retrieved 24 December 2014. The year is 843 C.E., and the Carolingian Empire has reached the peak of its expansion, covering more territory in Western Europe than any other dynasty since the Roman Empire.
  7. ^ Miksic (1997)
  8. ^ Soekmono, R, Drs., Pengantar Sejarah Kebudayaan Indonesia 2, 2nd ed. Penerbit Kanisius, Yogyakarta, 1973, 5th reprint edition in 1988 p.46

Bibliography









Categories: 9th century | 1st millennium | Centuries




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