Alexander IV of Macedon -

Alexander IV of Macedon

Alexander IV
323–309 BC
PredecessorPhilip III
Personal details
BornAugust 323 BC
DiedLate Summer 309 BC (aged 13 or 14)
Macedon, Ancient Greece
FatherAlexander III of Macedon
MotherRoxana of Bactria
ReligionAncient Greek Religion

Alexander IV (Greek: Ἀλέξανδρος Δ΄; 323–309 BC), erroneously called sometimes in modern times Aegus,[2] was the son of Alexander the Great (Alexander III of Macedon) and Princess Roxana of Bactria.



Alexander IV was the son of Alexander the Great (a Macedonian Greek) and Alexander's wife Roxana (a Sogdian).[3][4][5] He was the grandson of Philip II of Macedon. Because Roxana was pregnant when Alexander the Great died on 11 June 323 BC and the sex of the baby was unknown, there was dissension in the Macedonian army regarding the order of succession. While the infantry supported the unborn baby's uncle, Philip III (who was feeble-minded), the chiliarch Perdiccas, commander of the elite Companion cavalry, persuaded them to wait in the hope that Roxana's unborn child would be male. The factions compromised, deciding that Perdiccas would rule the Empire as regent while Philip would reign, but only as a figurehead with no real power. If the child was male, then he would be king. Alexander IV was born in August, 323 BC.


After a severe regency, military failure in Egypt, and mutiny in the army, Perdiccas was assassinated by his senior officers in May or June 321 or 320 BC (problems with Diodorus's chronology have made the year uncertain[6]), after which Antipater was named as the new regent at the Partition of Triparadisus. He brought with him Roxana and the two kings to Macedon and gave up the pretence of ruling Alexander's Empire, leaving former provinces in Egypt and Asia under the control of the satraps. When Antipater died in 319 BC he left Polyperchon, a Macedonian general who had served under Philip II and Alexander the Great, as his successor, passing over his own son, Cassander.

Civil War

Cassander allied himself with Ptolemy Soter, Antigonus and Eurydice, the ambitious wife of king Philip Arrhidaeus, and declared war upon the Regency. Polyperchon was allied with Eumenes and Olympias.

Although Polyperchon was successful at first, taking control of the Greek cities, his fleet was destroyed by Antigonus in 318 BC. When, after the battle, Cassander assumed full control of Macedon, Polyperchon was forced to flee to Epirus, followed by Roxana and the young Alexander. A few months later, Olympias was able to persuade her relative Aeacides of Epirus to invade Macedon with Polyperchon. When Olympias took the field, Eurydice's army refused to fight against the mother of Alexander and defected to Olympias, after which Polyperchon and Aeacides retook Macedon. Philip and Eurydice were captured and executed on December 25, 317 BC, leaving Alexander IV king, and Olympias in effective control, as she was his regent.

Cassander returned in the following year (316 BC), conquering Macedon once again. Olympias was immediately executed, while the king and his mother were taken prisoner and held in the citadel of Amphipolis under the supervision of Glaucias. When the general peace between Cassander, Antigonus, Ptolemy, and Lysimachus put an end to the Third Diadoch War in 311 BC, the peace treaty recognized Alexander IV's rights and explicitly stated that when he came of age he would succeed Cassander as ruler.


Following the treaty, defenders of the Argead dynasty began to declare that Alexander IV should now exercise full power and that a regent was no longer needed, since he had almost reached the significant age of 14, the age at which a Macedonian noble could become a court page. Cassander's response was definitive: to secure his rule, in 309 BC he commanded Glaucias to secretly assassinate the 14-year-old Alexander IV and his mother. The orders were carried out, and they were both poisoned. There is controversy about the exact year of Alexander IV's death because of conflicting sources but the consensus of Hammond and Walbank in A History of Macedonia Vol. 3 is that Alexander was killed late in the summer of 309 BC, shortly after his alleged half-brother Heracles. However, Green thinks that Heracles was killed after Alexander IV's assassination.[7]

One of the royal tombs discovered by the archaeologist Manolis Andronikos in the so-called "Great Tumulus" in Vergina in 1977/8 is believed to belong to Alexander IV.[8]


  1. ^ Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien (1849)
  2. ^ The error was caused by a modern misreading, ΑΙΓΟΥ for ΑΛΛΟΥ, of the text of Ptolemy's Canon of Kings. See e.g. "s.v. Alexander the Great". Encyclopædia Britannica . 1. 1911. p. 549. Chugg, Andrew Michael (2007). The Quest for the Tomb of Alexander the Great . Lulu. p. 42. At Google Books.
  3. ^ Ahmed, S. Z. (2004), Chaghatai: the Fabulous Cities and People of the Silk Road, West Conshokoken: Infinity Publishing, p. 61.
  4. ^ Strachan, Edward and Roy Bolton (2008), Russia and Europe in the Nineteenth Century, London: Sphinx Fine Art, p. 87, ISBN 978-1-907200-02-1.
  5. ^ "Roxane ." Articles on Ancient History. Page last modified 17 August 2015. Retrieved on 29 August 2016.
  6. ^ Anson, Edward M (Summer 1986). "Diodorus and the Date of Triparadeisus". The American Journal of Philology. The Johns Hopkins University Press. 107 (2): 208–217. doi:10.2307/294603 . JSTOR 294603 .
  7. ^ Green, Peter. Alexander the Great and the Hellenistic Age. p44, 2007 Ed.
  8. ^ "Royal Tombs: Vergina" . Macedonian Heritage. Retrieved 9 July 2013.

Further reading

External links

Alexander IV of Macedon
Born: 323 BC Died: 309 BC
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Philip III
King of Macedon
323–311 BC
Succeeded by
King of Asia
323–311 BC
Succeeded by
Seleucus I Nicator
Pharaoh of Egypt
323–311 BC
Succeeded by
Ptolemy I Soter

Categories: 323 BC births | 309 BC deaths | 4th-century BC Macedonian monarchs | 4th-century BC Pharaohs | 4th-century BC Babylonian kings | Family of Alexander the Great | Argead kings of Macedonia | Greek people of Iranian descent | Monarchs of Persia | 4th-century BC murdered monarchs | Pharaohs of the Argead dynasty | Rulers who died as children | Ancient child rulers | 4th-century BC rulers | People who died under the regency of Cassander | Murdered royalty of Macedonia (ancient kingdom) | 4th-century BC Macedonians | Deaths by poisoning

Information as of: 14.06.2020 02:44:34 CEST

Source: Wikipedia (Authors [History])    License : CC-by-sa-3.0

Changes: All pictures and most design elements which are related to those, were removed. Some Icons were replaced by FontAwesome-Icons. Some templates were removed (like “article needs expansion) or assigned (like “hatnotes”). CSS classes were either removed or harmonized.
Wikipedia specific links which do not lead to an article or category (like “Redlinks”, “links to the edit page”, “links to portals”) were removed. Every external link has an additional FontAwesome-Icon. Beside some small changes of design, media-container, maps, navigation-boxes, spoken versions and Geo-microformats were removed.

Please note: Because the given content is automatically taken from Wikipedia at the given point of time, a manual verification was and is not possible. Therefore does not guarantee the accuracy and actuality of the acquired content. If there is an Information which is wrong at the moment or has an inaccurate display please feel free to contact us: email.
See also: Legal Notice & Privacy policy.