Alveolar consonant


Alveolar
◌͇

Alveolar consonants (/ælˈvələr, ˌælviˈlər/) are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the upper teeth. Alveolar consonants may be articulated with the tip of the tongue (the apical consonants), as in English, or with the flat of the tongue just above the tip (the "blade" of the tongue; called laminal consonants), as in French and Spanish. The laminal alveolar articulation is often mistakenly called dental, because the tip of the tongue can be seen near to or touching the teeth. However, it is the rearmost point of contact that defines the place of articulation, is where the oral cavity ends, and it is the resonant space of the oral cavity that gives consonants and vowels their characteristics.

The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) does not have separate symbols for the alveolar consonants. Rather, the same symbol is used for all coronal places of articulation that are not palatalized like English palato-alveolar sh, or retroflex. To disambiguate, the bridge ([s̪, t̪, n̪, l̪], etc.) may be used for a dental consonant, or the under-bar ([s̠, t̠, n̠, l̠], etc.) may be used for the postalveolars. [s̪] differs from dental [θ] in that the former is a sibilant and the latter is not. [s̠] differs from postalveolar [ʃ] in being unpalatalized.

The bare letters [s, t, n, l], etc. cannot be assumed to specifically represent alveolars. The language may not make such distinctions, such that two or more coronal places of articulation are found allophonically, or the transcription may simply be too broad to distinguish dental from alveolar. If it is necessary to specify a consonant as alveolar, a diacritic from the Extended IPA may be used: [s͇, t͇, n͇, l͇], etc., though that could also mean extra-retracted.[1] The letters ⟨s, t, n, l⟩ are frequently called 'alveolar', and the language examples below are all alveolar sounds.

(The Extended IPA diacritic was devised for speech pathology and is frequently used to mean "alveolarized", as in the labioalveolar sounds [p͇, b͇, m͇, f͇, v͇], where the lower lip contacts the alveolar ridge.)

Contents

In IPA


Alveolar consonants are transcribed in the IPA as follows:

IPA Description Example
Language Orthography IPA Meaning in English
alveolar nasal English run [ɹʌn]
voiceless alveolar stop English stop [stɒp]
voiced alveolar stop English debt [dɛt]
voiceless alveolar fricative English suit [suːt]
voiced alveolar fricative English zoo [zuː]
voiceless alveolar affricate English pizza [pit͡sə]
voiced alveolar affricate Italian zaino d͡zaino] backpack
voiceless alveolar lateral fricative Welsh llwyd [ɬʊɪd] grey
voiced alveolar lateral fricative Zulu dlala ɮálà] to play
t͡ɬ voiceless alveolar lateral affricate Tsez элIни [ˈʔe̞t͡ɬni] winter
d͡ɮ voiced alveolar lateral affricate ? ? ? ?
alveolar approximant English red [ɹɛd]
alveolar lateral approximant English loop [lup]
velarized alveolar lateral approximant English milk [mɪɫk]
alveolar flap English better [bɛɾɚ]
alveolar lateral flap Venda [vuɺa] to open
alveolar trill Spanish perro [pero] dog
alveolar ejective Georgian [ia] tulip
alveolar ejective fricative Amharic [ɛɡa]
alveolar lateral ejective fricative Adyghe плӀы [pɬ’ə]
voiced alveolar implosive Vietnamese đã [ɗɐː] Past tense indicator
alveolar lateral click release (many distinct consonants) Nama ǁî [ǁĩː] discussed

Lack of alveolars


The alveolar or dental consonants [t] and [n] are, along with [k], the most common consonants in human languages.[2] Nonetheless, there are a few languages that lack them. A few languages on Bougainville Island and around Puget Sound, such as Makah, lack nasals and therefore [n], but have [t]. Colloquial Samoan, however, lacks both [t] and [n], but it has a lateral alveolar approximant /l/. (Samoan words written with t and n are pronounced with [k] and [ŋ] in colloquial speech.) In Standard Hawaiian, [t] is an allophone of /k/, but /l/ and /n/ exist.

Labioalveolar consonants


In labioalveolars, the lower lip contacts the alveolar ridge. Such sounds are typically the result of a severe overbite. In the Extensions to the IPA for disordered speech, they are transcribed with the alveolar diacritic on labial letters: ⟨m͇ p͇ b͇ f͇ v͇⟩.

See also


Notes


  1. ^ E.g. in Laver (1994) Principles of Phonetics, p. 559–560
  2. ^ Ian Maddieson and Sandra Ferrari Disner, 1984, Patterns of Sounds. Cambridge University Press

References









Categories: Place of articulation | Alveolar consonants




Information as of: 10.06.2020 07:43:04 CEST

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