List of sovereign states


(Redirected from Countries_of_the_world)

The following is a list providing an overview of sovereign states around the world, with information on their status and recognition of their sovereignty.

The 206 listed states can be divided into three categories based on membership within the United Nations System: 193 member states,[1] 2 observer states and 11 other states. The sovereignty dispute column indicates states having undisputed sovereignty (188 states), states having disputed sovereignty (16 states, of which there are 6 member states, 1 observer state and 9 other states), and states having a special status (2 states).

Compiling a list such as this can be a difficult and controversial process, as there is no definition that is binding on all the members of the community of nations concerning the criteria for statehood. For more information on the criteria used to determine the contents of this list, please see the criteria for inclusion section below. The list is intended to include entities that have been recognised as having de facto status as sovereign states, and inclusion should not be seen as an endorsement of any specific claim to statehood in legal terms.

Contents

List of states


Common and formal names Membership within the UN System[a] Sovereignty dispute[b] Further information on status and recognition of sovereignty[d]
UN member states and observer states
Abkhazia → See Abkhazia listing
 Afghanistan – Islamic Republic of Afghanistan UN member state None
 Albania – Republic of Albania UN member state None
 Algeria – People's Democratic Republic of Algeria UN member state None
 Andorra – Principality of Andorra UN member state None Andorra is a co-principality in which the office of head of state is jointly held ex officio by the French president and the bishop of the Roman Catholic diocese of Urgell,[2] who himself is appointed with approval from the Holy See.
 Angola – Republic of Angola UN member state None
 Antigua and Barbuda UN member state None Antigua and Barbuda is a Commonwealth realm[e] with one autonomous region, Barbuda.[f]
 Argentina – Argentine Republic[g] UN member state None Argentina is a federation of 23 provinces and one autonomous city.[h]
 Armenia – Republic of Armenia UN member state Not recognised by Pakistan. Armenia is not recognised by Pakistan due to the dispute over Artsakh.[5][6][7]
Artsakh → See Artsakh listing
 Australia – Commonwealth of Australia UN member state None Australia is a Commonwealth realm[e] and a federation of both states and territories. There are six states, three internal territories, six external territories and one claimed Antarctic external territory. The external territories of Australia are:
 Austria – Republic of Austria UN member state None Member of the European Union.[c] Austria is a federation of nine states.
 Azerbaijan – Republic of Azerbaijan UN member state None Azerbaijan contains one autonomous region, Nakhchivan [f] The de facto state of Artsakh has been established in the southwest of Azerbaijan.
 Bahamas, The – Commonwealth of The Bahamas[9] UN member state None The Bahamas is a Commonwealth realm.[e]
 Bahrain – Kingdom of Bahrain UN member state None
 Bangladesh – People's Republic of Bangladesh UN member state None
 Barbados UN member state None Barbados is a Commonwealth realm.[e]
 Belarus – Republic of Belarus UN member state None
 Belgium – Kingdom of Belgium UN member state None Member of the EU.[c] Belgium is a federation of three linguistic communities and three regions.
 Belize UN member state None Belize is a Commonwealth realm.[e]
 Benin – Republic of Benin UN member state None
 Bhutan – Kingdom of Bhutan UN member state None
 Bolivia – Plurinational State of Bolivia UN member state None
 Bosnia and Herzegovina UN member state None Bosnia and Herzegovina has two constituent entities:

and Brčko District, a self-governing administrative district.[10]

 Botswana – Republic of Botswana UN member state None
 Brazil – Federative Republic of Brazil UN member state None Brazil is a federation of 26 states and one federal district.
 Brunei – Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace UN member state None
 Bulgaria – Republic of Bulgaria UN member state None Member of the EU.[c]
 Burkina Faso UN member state None
Burma → See Myanmar listing
 Burundi – Republic of Burundi UN member state None
 Cambodia – Kingdom of Cambodia UN member state None
 Cameroon – Republic of Cameroon UN member state None
 Canada[i] UN member state None Canada is a Commonwealth realm[e] and a federation of 10 provinces and three territories.
 Cape Verde – Republic of Cabo Verde[j] UN member state None
 Central African Republic UN member state None
 Chad – Republic of Chad UN member state None
 Chile – Republic of Chile UN member state None [k]
 China – People's Republic of China[l] UN member state Partially unrecognised. Claimed by the Republic of China China contains five autonomous regions, Guangxi, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia, Tibet, and Xinjiang.[f] Additionally, it has sovereignty over the Special Administrative Regions of:

China claims, but does not control Taiwan, which is governed by a rival administration (the Republic of China) that claims all of China as its territory.[m]

China is not recognised by 15 UN member states and Vatican City, which, with the exception of Bhutan, all recognise Taiwan instead.[n]

China, Republic of → See Taiwan listing
 Colombia – Republic of Colombia UN member state None
 Comoros – Union of the Comoros UN member state None Comoros is a federation of three islands.[o]
 Congo, Democratic Republic of the[p] UN member state None
 Congo, Republic of the[q] UN member state None
Cook Islands → See Cook Islands listing
 Costa Rica – Republic of Costa Rica UN member state None
Côte d'Ivoire → See Ivory Coast listing
 Croatia – Republic of Croatia UN member state None Member of the EU.[c]
 Cuba – Republic of Cuba UN member state None
 Cyprus – Republic of Cyprus UN member state Not recognised by Turkey[13] Member of the EU.[c] The northeastern part of the island is the de facto state of Northern Cyprus.

Cyprus is not recognised by Turkey due to the Cyprus dispute, with Turkey recognising Northern Cyprus.

 Czech Republic[r] UN member state None Member of the EU.[c]
Democratic People's Republic of Korea → See Korea, North listing
Democratic Republic of the Congo → See Congo, Democratic Republic of the listing
 Denmark – Kingdom of Denmark UN member state None Member of the EU.[c] The Kingdom of Denmark includes 2 self-governing territories:

The continental territory of Denmark, the Faroe Islands, and Greenland form the three constituent countries of the Kingdom.[s] The Kingdom of Denmark as a whole is a member of the EU, but EU law does not apply to the Faroe Islands and Greenland.[14][15]

 Djibouti – Republic of Djibouti UN member state None
 Dominica – Commonwealth of Dominica UN member state None
 Dominican Republic UN member state None
 East Timor – Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste[t] UN member state None
 Ecuador – Republic of Ecuador UN member state None
 Egypt – Arab Republic of Egypt UN member state None
 El Salvador – Republic of El Salvador UN member state None
 Equatorial Guinea – Republic of Equatorial Guinea UN member state None
 Eritrea – State of Eritrea UN member state None
 Estonia – Republic of Estonia UN member state None Member of the EU.[c]
 Eswatini – Kingdom of Eswatini[u] UN member state None
 Ethiopia – Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia UN member state None Ethiopia is a federation of nine regions and two chartered cities.
 Fiji – Republic of Fiji UN member state None Fiji contains one autonomous region, Rotuma.[f][16][17]
 Finland – Republic of Finland UN member state None Member of the EU.[c]
  •  Åland is a neutral and demilitarised autonomous region of Finland.[f][v]
 France – French Republic UN member state None Member of the EU.[c] France contains five overseas regions/departments; French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte, and Réunion. France also includes the overseas territories of:
 Gabon – Gabonese Republic UN member state None
 Gambia, The – Republic of The Gambia[18] UN member state None
 Georgia UN member state None Georgia contains two autonomous republics, Adjara and Abkhazia.[f] In Abkhazia and South Ossetia, de facto states have been formed.
 Germany – Federal Republic of Germany UN member state None Member of the EU.[c] Germany is a federation of 16 states.
 Ghana – Republic of Ghana UN member state None
 Greece – Hellenic Republic UN member state None Member of the EU.[c] Greece contains one autonomous area, Mount Athos.[19]
 Grenada UN member state None Grenada is a Commonwealth realm.[e]
 Guatemala – Republic of Guatemala UN member state None
 Guinea – Republic of Guinea[x] UN member state None
 Guinea-Bissau – Republic of Guinea-Bissau UN member state None
 Guyana – Co-operative Republic of Guyana UN member state None
 Haiti – Republic of Haiti UN member state None
Holy See → See Vatican City listing
 Honduras – Republic of Honduras UN member state None
 Hungary UN member state None Member of the EU.[c]
 Iceland[y] UN member state None
 India – Republic of India UN member state None India is a federation of 28 states and eight union territories.
 Indonesia – Republic of Indonesia UN member state None Indonesia has five autonomous provinces, Aceh, Jakarta, Papua, West Papua, and Yogyakarta.[f]
 Iran – Islamic Republic of Iran UN member state None
 Iraq – Republic of Iraq UN member state None Iraq is a federation[o][23] of 19 governorates, four of which make up the autonomous Kurdistan Region.[f]
 Ireland[z] UN member state None Member of the EU.[c]
 Israel – State of Israel UN member state Partially unrecognised Israel exerts strong control over the territory claimed by Palestine. Israel annexed East Jerusalem,[25] an annexation not recognised by the international community.[26] Israel maintains varying levels of control over the rest of the West Bank, and although Israel no longer has a permanent civilian or military presence in the Gaza Strip, following its unilateral disengagement, it is still considered by some to be the occupying power under international law.[27][28][29][30][31]

Israel is not recognised as a state by 28 UN members and the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic. The Palestine Liberation Organization, which enjoys recognition by a majority of UN member states as the sole representative of the Palestinian people, also does not recognise Israel.

 Italy – Italian Republic UN member state None Member of the EU.[c] Italy has 5 autonomous regions, Aosta Valley, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Sardinia, Sicily and Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol.[f]
 Ivory Coast – Republic of Côte d'Ivoire[aa] UN member state None
 Jamaica UN member state None Jamaica is a Commonwealth realm.[e]
 Japan UN member state None
 Jordan – Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan UN member state None
 Kazakhstan – Republic of Kazakhstan UN member state None
 Kenya – Republic of Kenya UN member state None
 Kiribati – Republic of Kiribati UN member state None
 Korea, North – Democratic People's Republic of Korea UN member state Claimed by South Korea North Korea is not recognised by three UN members, France, Japan, and South Korea, the last of which claims to be the sole legitimate government of Korea.[32]
 Korea, South – Republic of Korea UN member state Claimed by North Korea South Korea has one autonomous region, Jejudo.[f][33]

South Korea is not recognised by North Korea, which claims to be the sole legitimate government of Korea.

Kosovo → See Kosovo listing
 Kuwait – State of Kuwait UN member state None
 Kyrgyzstan – Kyrgyz Republic UN member state None
 Laos – Lao People's Democratic Republic UN member state None
 Latvia – Republic of Latvia UN member state None Member of the EU.[c]
 Lebanon – Lebanese Republic UN member state None
 Lesotho – Kingdom of Lesotho UN member state None
 Liberia – Republic of Liberia UN member state None
 Libya – State of Libya UN member state None
 Liechtenstein – Principality of Liechtenstein UN member state None
 Lithuania – Republic of Lithuania UN member state None Member of the EU.[c]
 Luxembourg – Grand Duchy of Luxembourg UN member state None Member of the EU.[c]
Macedonia → See North Macedonia listing
 Madagascar – Republic of Madagascar UN member state None
 Malawi – Republic of Malawi UN member state None
 Malaysia UN member state None Malaysia is a federation of 13 states and three federal territories.
 Maldives – Republic of Maldives UN member state None
 Mali – Republic of Mali UN member state None
 Malta – Republic of Malta UN member state None Member of the EU.[c]
 Marshall Islands – Republic of the Marshall Islands UN member state None Under Compact of Free Association with the United States.
 Mauritania – Islamic Republic of Mauritania UN member state None
 Mauritius – Republic of Mauritius UN member state None Mauritius has an autonomous island, Rodrigues.[f]
 Mexico – United Mexican States UN member state None Mexico is a federation of 31 states and one autonomous city.

The Rebel Zapatista Autonomous Municipalities have de facto autonomy.

 Micronesia – Federated States of Micronesia UN member state None Under Compact of Free Association with the United States. The Federated States of Micronesia is a federation of four states.
 Moldova – Republic of Moldova UN member state None Moldova has the autonomous regions of Gagauzia and Transnistria autonomous territorial unit. The latter is under the de facto control of Transnistria.
 Monaco – Principality of Monaco UN member state None
 Mongolia UN member state None
 Montenegro UN member state None
 Morocco – Kingdom of Morocco UN member state None Part of the Moroccan-claimed Western Sahara is controlled by the partially recognised Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic.
 Mozambique – Republic of Mozambique UN member state None
 Myanmar – Republic of the Union of Myanmar[ab] UN member state None Wa State is a de facto autonomous state within Myanmar.
Nagorno-Karabakh → See Artsakh listing
 Namibia – Republic of Namibia UN member state None
 Nauru – Republic of Nauru UN member state None
   Nepal – Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal UN member state None Nepal is a federation composed of 7 provinces.
 Netherlands – Kingdom of the Netherlands UN member state None Member of the EU.[c] The Kingdom of the Netherlands includes four areas with substantial autonomy:

The continental part of the Netherlands, Aruba, Curaçao, and Sint Maarten form the four constituent countries of the Kingdom. Three other overseas territories (Bonaire, Saba, and Sint Eustatius) are special municipalities of the continental Netherlands.[ac] The Kingdom of the Netherlands as a whole is a member of the EU, but EU law applies only to parts within Europe.

 New Zealand UN member state None New Zealand is a Commonwealth realm,[e] and has one dependent territory and one claimed Antarctic dependent territory of:

The New Zealand Government acts for the entire Realm of New Zealand in all international contexts, which has responsibilities for (but no rights of control over) two freely associated states:

The Cook Islands and Niue have diplomatic relations with 49 and 18 UN members respectively.[34][35][36] They have full treaty-making capacity in the UN,[37] and are members of some UN specialized agencies.

 Nicaragua – Republic of Nicaragua UN member state None Nicaragua contains two autonomous regions, Atlántico Sur and Atlántico Norte.[f]
 Niger – Republic of Niger UN member state None
 Nigeria – Federal Republic of Nigeria UN member state None Nigeria is a federation of 36 states and one federal territory.
Niue → See Niue listing
North Korea → See Korea, North listing
 North Macedonia – Republic of North Macedonia[ad] UN member state None
Northern Cyprus → See Northern Cyprus listing
 Norway – Kingdom of Norway UN member state None Norway has two unincorporated areas in Europe:
  •  Svalbard is an integral part of Norway, but has a special status due to the Svalbard Treaty.
  •  Jan Mayen is an uninhabited island that is an integral part of Norway, although unincorporated.

Norway has one dependent territory and two claimed Antarctic dependent territories in the Southern Hemisphere:

 Oman – Sultanate of Oman UN member state None
 Pakistan – Islamic Republic of Pakistan UN member state None Pakistan is a federation of four provinces and one capital territory. Pakistan exercises control over certain portions of Kashmir, but has not officially annexed any of it,[38][39] instead regarding it as a disputed territory.[40][41] The portions that it controls are divided into two territories, administered separately from Pakistan proper:

Azad Kashmir describes itself as a "self-governing state under Pakistani control", while Gilgit-Baltistan is described in its governance order as a group of "areas" with self-government.[42][43][44] These territories are not usually regarded as sovereign, as they do not fulfil the criteria set out by the declarative theory of statehood (for example, their current laws do not allow them to engage independently in relations with other states). Several state functions of these territories (such as foreign affairs and defence) are performed by Pakistan.[43][45][46]

 Palau – Republic of Palau UN member state None Under Compact of Free Association with the United States.
 Palestine – State of Palestine UN observer state; member of 2 UN specialized agencies Partially unrecognised. Disputed by Israel The State of Palestine, declared in 1988, is not recognised as a state by Israel and has received diplomatic recognition from 138 states.[47] The proclaimed state has no agreed territorial borders, or effective control over much of the territory that it proclaimed.[48] The Palestinian National Authority is an interim administrative body formed as a result of the Oslo Accords that exercises limited autonomous jurisdiction within the Palestinian territories. In foreign relations, Palestine is represented by the Palestine Liberation Organization.[49] The State of Palestine is a member state of UNESCO,[50] UNIDO and other international organizations.[51]
 Panama – Republic of Panama UN member state None
 Papua New Guinea – Independent State of Papua New Guinea UN member state None Papua New Guinea is a Commonwealth realm[e] with one autonomous region, Bougainville.[f]
 Paraguay – Republic of Paraguay UN member state None
 Peru – Republic of Peru UN member state None
 Philippines – Republic of the Philippines UN member state None The Philippines contains one autonomous region, Bangsamoro.[f]
 Poland – Republic of Poland UN member state None Member of the EU.[c]
 Portugal – Portuguese Republic UN member state None Member of the EU.[c] Portugal contains two autonomous regions, the Azores and Madeira.[f]
Pridnestrovie → See Transnistria listing
 Qatar – State of Qatar UN member state None
Republic of Korea → See Korea, South listing
Republic of the Congo → See Congo, Republic of the listing
 Romania UN member state None Member of the EU.[c]
 Russia – Russian Federation UN member state None Russia is a federation of 85 federal subjects (republics, oblasts, krais, autonomous okrugs, federal cities, and an autonomous oblast). Several of the federal subjects are ethnic republics.[f]
 Rwanda – Republic of Rwanda UN member state None
Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic → See Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic listing
 Saint Kitts and Nevis – Federation of Saint Christopher and Nevis UN member state None Saint Kitts and Nevis is a Commonwealth realm[e] and is a federation[o] of two islands, St. Kitts and Nevis.
 Saint Lucia UN member state None Saint Lucia is a Commonwealth realm.[e]
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines UN member state None Saint Vincent and the Grenadines is a Commonwealth realm.[e]
 Samoa – Independent State of Samoa UN member state None
 San Marino – Republic of San Marino UN member state None
 São Tomé and Príncipe – Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe UN member state None São Tomé and Príncipe contains one autonomous province, Príncipe.[f]
 Saudi Arabia – Kingdom of Saudi Arabia UN member state None
 Senegal – Republic of Senegal UN member state None
 Serbia – Republic of Serbia UN member state None Serbia contains two autonomous regions, Vojvodina and Kosovo and Metohija.[f] The latter is under the de facto control of Kosovo.
 Seychelles – Republic of Seychelles UN member state None
 Sierra Leone – Republic of Sierra Leone UN member state None
 Singapore – Republic of Singapore UN member state None
 Slovakia – Slovak Republic UN member state None Member of the EU.[c]
 Slovenia – Republic of Slovenia UN member state None Member of the EU.[c]
 Solomon Islands UN member state None Solomon Islands is a Commonwealth realm.[e]
 Somalia – Federal Republic of Somalia UN member state None Somalia is a federation of six states. Two, Puntland and Galmudug, have self-declared autonomy, while one, Somaliland, is de facto independent.
Somaliland → See Somaliland listing
 South Africa – Republic of South Africa UN member state None
South Korea → See Korea, South listing
South Ossetia → See South Ossetia listing
 South Sudan – Republic of South Sudan UN member state None South Sudan is a federation of 10 states and three administrative areas.
  • The Abyei Area is a zone with "special administrative status" established by the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in 2005. It is de jure a condominium of South Sudan and Sudan, but de facto administered by two competing administrations and the United Nations.[52][53]
 Spain – Kingdom of Spain UN member state None Member of the EU.[c] Spain is divided into 17 autonomous communities and two special autonomous cities.[f][ae]
 Sri Lanka – Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka[af] UN member state None
 Sudan – Republic of the Sudan UN member state None Sudan is a federation of 18 states.
  • The Abyei Area is a zone with "special administrative status" established by the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in 2005. It is de jure a condominium of South Sudan and Sudan, but de facto administered by two competing administrations and the United Nations.[52][53]
Sudan, South → See South Sudan listing
 Suriname – Republic of Suriname UN member state None
Swaziland → See Eswatini listing
 Sweden – Kingdom of Sweden UN member state None Member of the EU.[c]
  Switzerland – Swiss Confederation UN member state None Switzerland is a federation of 26 cantons.
 Syria – Syrian Arab Republic UN member state None The Syrian National Coalition, which is recognised as the legitimate representative of the Syrian people by 20 UN members, has established an interim government to rule rebel controlled territory during the Syrian civil war.

Syria has one self-declared autonomous region: Rojava.

Taiwan (Republic of China) → See Taiwan listing
 Tajikistan – Republic of Tajikistan UN member state None Tajikistan contains one autonomous region, Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province.[f]
 Tanzania – United Republic of Tanzania UN member state None Tanzania contains one autonomous region, Zanzibar.[f]
 Thailand – Kingdom of Thailand UN member state None
The Bahamas → See Bahamas, The listing
The Gambia → See Gambia, The listing
Timor-Leste → See East Timor listing
 Togo – Togolese Republic UN member state None
 Tonga – Kingdom of Tonga UN member state None
Transnistria → See Transnistria listing
 Trinidad and Tobago – Republic of Trinidad and Tobago UN member state None Trinidad and Tobago contains one autonomous region, Tobago.[f]
 Tunisia – Republic of Tunisia UN member state None
 Turkey – Republic of Turkey UN member state None
 Turkmenistan - Republic of Turkmenistan UN member state None
 Tuvalu UN member state None Tuvalu is a Commonwealth realm.[e]
 Uganda – Republic of Uganda UN member state None
 Ukraine UN member state None Ukraine contains one autonomous region, the Autonomous Republic of Crimea,[f] which is under the de facto control of Russia, along with neighbouring Sevastopol.
 United Arab Emirates UN member state None The United Arab Emirates is a federation of seven emirates.
 United Kingdom – United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland UN member state None The United Kingdom is a Commonwealth realm[e] consisting of four constituent countries; England, Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales. The United Kingdom has the following 13 overseas territories and one claimed Antarctic dependent territory:

The British monarch also has direct sovereignty over three self-governing Crown dependencies:

 United States – United States of America UN member state None The United States is a federation of 50 states, one federal district, and one incorporated territory. Additionally, the Federal government of the United States has sovereignty over 13 unincorporated territories. Of these territories, the following five are inhabited possessions:

It also has sovereignty over several uninhabited territories:

It also disputes sovereignty over the following two territories:

Three sovereign states have become associated states of the United States under the Compact of Free Association:

 Uruguay – Oriental Republic of Uruguay UN member state None
 Uzbekistan – Republic of Uzbekistan UN member state None Uzbekistan contains one autonomous region, Karakalpakstan.[f]
 Vanuatu – Republic of Vanuatu UN member state None
  Vatican City – Vatican City State UN observer state under the designation of "Holy See"; member of three UN specialized agencies and the IAEA None Administered by the Holy See, a sovereign entity with diplomatic relations to 183 states. This figure consists of 180 UN member states, the Cook Islands, the Republic of China (Taiwan), and the State of Palestine.[54] In addition, the European Union and the Sovereign Military Order of Malta maintain diplomatic relations with the Holy See. The Holy See is a member of the IAEA, ITU, UPU, and WIPO and a permanent observer of the UN (in the category of "Non-member State")[49] and multiple other UN System organizations. The Vatican City is governed by officials appointed by the Pope, who is the Bishop of the Diocese of Rome and ex officio sovereign of Vatican City.
 Venezuela – Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela UN member state None Venezuela is a federation of 23 states, one capital district, and federal dependencies.
 Vietnam – Socialist Republic of Vietnam UN member state None
 Yemen – Republic of Yemen UN member state None
 Zambia – Republic of Zambia UN member state None
 Zimbabwe – Republic of Zimbabwe UN member state None
UN member states and observer states
↓ Other states ↓
 Abkhazia – Republic of Abkhazia No membership Claimed by Georgia Recognised by Russia, Nauru, Nicaragua, Syria, Venezuela, Artsakh, South Ossetia and Transnistria.[55] Claimed in whole by Georgia as the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia.
 Artsakh – Republic of Artsakh[ag] No membership Claimed by Azerbaijan A de facto independent state,[56][57][58] recognised only by Abkhazia,[59] South Ossetia[59] and Transnistria.[59][60] Claimed in whole by Azerbaijan.[61]
 Cook Islands Member of eight UN specialized agencies None
(See political status)
A state in free association with New Zealand, the Cook Islands maintains diplomatic relations with 52 states. The Cook Islands is a member of multiple UN agencies with full treaty making capacity.[37] It shares a head of state with New Zealand as well as having shared citizenship.
 Kosovo – Republic of Kosovo Member of two UN specialized agencies Claimed by Serbia Pursuant to United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244, Kosovo was placed under the administration of the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo in 1999.[62] Kosovo declared independence in 2008, and it has received diplomatic recognition from 113 UN member states and the Republic of China, while 18 states have recognized Kosovo only to later withdraw their recognition.[63] Serbia continues to maintain its sovereignty claim over Kosovo. Other UN member states and non UN member states continue to recognise Serbian sovereignty or have taken no position on the question. Kosovo is a member of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank Group. The Republic of Kosovo has de facto control over most of the territory, with limited control in North Kosovo.
 Niue Member of five UN specialized agencies None
(See political status)
A state in free association with New Zealand, Niue maintains diplomatic relations with 20 states. Niue is a member of multiple UN agencies with full treaty making capacity.[37] It shares a head of state with New Zealand as well as having shared citizenship.
 Northern Cyprus – Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus No membership Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Recognised only by Turkey. Under the name "Turkish Cypriot State", it is an observer state of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and the Economic Cooperation Organization. Northern Cyprus is claimed in whole by the Republic of Cyprus.[64]
 Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic No membership Claimed by Morocco Recognised at some stage by 84 UN member states, 45 of which have since withdrawn or frozen their recognition. It is a founding member of the African Union and the Asian–African Strategic Partnership formed at the 2005 Asian–African Conference. The territories under its control, the so-called Free Zone, are claimed in whole by Morocco as part of its Southern Provinces. In turn, the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic claims the part of Western Sahara to the west of the Moroccan Wall controlled by Morocco. Its government resides in exile in Tindouf, Algeria.
 Somaliland – Republic of Somaliland No membership Claimed by Somalia A de facto independent state,[56][65][66][67][68] not diplomatically recognised by any other state, claimed in whole by the Federal Republic of Somalia.[69]
 South Ossetia – Republic of South Ossetia–the State of Alania No membership Claimed by Georgia A de facto independent state,[70] recognised by Russia, Nicaragua, Nauru, Syria, Venezuela, Abkhazia, Artsakh and Transnistria. Claimed in whole by Georgia as the Provisional Administrative Entity of South Ossetia.[71]
 Taiwan – Republic of China[l] Former UN member and former permanent UN Security Council member (as Republic of China, 1945–1971)
Observer in one UN specialized agency under the name "Chinese Taipei"
Claimed by the People's Republic of China A state competing (nominally) for recognition with the People's Republic of China (PRC) as the government of China since 1949. The Republic of China (ROC) controls the island of Taiwan and associated islands, Quemoy, Matsu, the Pratas and parts of the Spratly Islands, and has not renounced claims over its annexed territories on the mainland.[72] The ROC is recognised by 14 UN member states and the Holy See as of 20 September 2019, none of which recognise the PRC. Additionally, one UN member (Bhutan) has refrained from recognising either the ROC or the PRC.

The territory of the ROC is claimed in whole by the PRC.[m] The ROC participates in international organizations under a variety of pseudonyms, most commonly "Chinese Taipei" and in the WTO it has full membership. The ROC was a founding member of the UN and enjoyed membership from 1945 to 1971, with veto power in the UN Security Council. See China and the United Nations.

 Transnistria – Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic No membership Claimed by Moldova A de facto independent state,[56] recognised only by Abkhazia, Artsakh and South Ossetia.[55] Claimed in whole by Moldova as the Transnistria autonomous territorial unit.[73]
↑ Other states ↑
Legend "Membership within the UN System" column
  UN Member states
  UN Observer states
  Member of a UN Specialized Agency
  Observer in a UN Specialized Agency
  No membership in the UN System
Legend "Sovereignty dispute" column
  Undisputed sovereignty
  Sovereignty disputed

Criteria for inclusion


The dominant customary international law standard of statehood is the declarative theory of statehood, which was codified by the Montevideo Convention of 1933. The Convention defines the state as a person of international law if it "possess[es] the following qualifications: (a) a permanent population; (b) a defined territory; (c) government; and (d) a capacity to enter into relations with the other states" so long as it was not "obtained by force whether this consists in the employment of arms, in threatening diplomatic representations, or in any other effective coercive measure".[74][improper synthesis?]

Debate exists on the degree to which recognition should be included as a criterion of statehood. The declarative theory of statehood argues that statehood is purely objective and recognition of a state by other states is irrelevant. On the other end of the spectrum, the constitutive theory of statehood defines a state as a person under international law only if it is recognised as sovereign by other states. For the purposes of this list, included are all states that either:

Note that in some cases, there is a divergence of opinion over the interpretation of the first point, and whether an entity satisfies it is disputed. Unique political entities which fail to meet the classification of a sovereign state are considered proto-states.[75][76]

On the basis of the above criteria, this list includes the following 206 entities:[77][ah]

The table includes bullets representing entities which are either not sovereign states or have a close association to another sovereign state. It also includes subnational areas where the sovereignty of the titular state is limited by an international agreement. Taken together, these include:

See also


Notes


  1. ^ This column indicates whether or not a state is a member of the United Nations.[1] It also indicates which non-member states participate in the United Nations System through membership in the International Atomic Energy Agency or one of the specialized agencies of the United Nations. All United Nations members belong to at least one specialized agency and are parties to the statute of the International Court of Justice.
  2. ^ This column indicates whether or not a state is the subject of a major sovereignty dispute. Only states whose entire sovereignty is disputed by another state are listed.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab The member states of the European Union have transferred part of their sovereignty in the form of legislative, executive, and judicial powers to the institutions of the EU, which is an example of supranational union. The EU has 27 member states.[8]
  4. ^ Information is included on:
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Commonwealth realm refers to any member state of the Commonwealth of Nations whose head of state is (currently) Queen Elizabeth II. Each realm is separate, independent, and a sovereign state; see Relationship of the realms.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x For more information on divisions with a high degree of autonomy, see List of autonomous areas by country.[3]
  7. ^ The Argentine Constitution (Art. 35) recognises the following denominations for Argentina: "United Provinces of the Río de la Plata", "Argentine Republic" and "Argentine Confederation"; furthermore, it establishes the usage of "Argentine Nation" for purposes of legislation.
  8. ^ Argentina's claimed Antarctic territory of Argentine Antarctica (Antártida Argentina) is one of five constituent departments of the province Tierra del Fuego.[4]
  9. ^ The legal name for Canada is the sole word; an officially sanctioned, though disused, name is Dominion of Canada (which includes its legal title); see: Name of Canada, Dominion.
  10. ^ The government of Cape Verde declared "Cabo Verde" to be the official English name of the country in 2013.[11]
  11. ^ Chile's claimed Antarctic territory of the Chilean Antarctic (Antártica Chilena) is a commune of the Antártica Chilena Province of the Magallanes Region.
  12. ^ a b The People's Republic of China (PRC) is commonly referred to as "China", while the Republic of China (ROC) is commonly referred to as "Taiwan". The ROC is also occasionally known diplomatically as Chinese Taipei, or by another alternative name.
  13. ^ a b In 1949, the Republic of China government led by the Kuomintang (KMT) lost the Chinese Civil War to the Communist Party of China (CPC) and set up a provisional capital in Taipei. The CPC established the PRC. As such, the political status of the ROC and legal status of Taiwan (alongside the territories under ROC jurisdiction) are in dispute. In 1971, the United Nations gave the China seat to the PRC. In the view of the United Nations, no member of the organisation withdrew as a consequence of this but the ROC representatives declared that they were withdrawing. Most states recognise the PRC to be the sole legitimate representative of all China, and the UN classifies Taiwan as "Taiwan, Province of China". The ROC has de facto relations with most sovereign states. A significant political movement within Taiwan advocates Taiwan independence.
  14. ^ See also Dates of establishment of diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China and Foreign relations of China.
  15. ^ a b c More information on more or less federal structures can be found at a List of federations.[12]
  16. ^ Also known as Congo-Kinshasa. Formerly referred to as Zaire, its official name from 1971 to 1997.
  17. ^ Also known as Congo-Brazzaville.
  18. ^ A simpler official short name has been encouraged by the Czech government, "Czechia". This variant remains uncommon, but has been adopted by several companies and organisations. See Name of the Czech Republic.
  19. ^ The designation "Denmark" can refer either to continental Denmark or to the short name for the entire Kingdom of the Danish Realm (e.g. in international organizations).
  20. ^ The government of East Timor uses "Timor-Leste" as the official English name of the country.
  21. ^ Formerly referred to as the Kingdom of Swaziland, its official name until 2018.
  22. ^ Åland was demilitarised by the Treaty of Paris in 1856, which was later affirmed by the League of Nations in 1921, and in a somewhat different context reaffirmed in the treaty on Finland's admission to the European Union in 1995.
  23. ^ France's claimed Antarctic territory of Adélie Land (Terre Adélie) is one of five constituent districts of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands.
  24. ^ Also known as Guinea-Conakry.
  25. ^ While sometimes referred to as the "Republic of Iceland"[20][21] and sometimes its counterpart Lýðveldið Ísland in Icelandic, the official name of the country is simply "Iceland".[22] One example of the former is the name of the Constitution of Iceland, which in Icelandic is Stjórnarskrá lýðveldisins Íslands and literally means "the Constitution of the republic of Iceland". However, note that in this usage "republic" is not capitalised.
  26. ^ "Ireland" is the official name of the country in English. "Republic of Ireland" (the official description in English) and "Éire" (the official name in Irish) have sometimes been used unofficially to distinguish the state from the larger island of Ireland, however, this is officially deprecated.[24] See names of the Irish state.
  27. ^ The government of Ivory Coast uses "Côte d'Ivoire" as the official English name of the country.
  28. ^ The country's official name of Myanmar, adopted in 1989, has been mixed and controversial, with the former name Burma still being used in many cases. See Names of Myanmar.
  29. ^ The designation "Netherlands" can refer either to the continental Netherlands or to the short name for the entire Kingdom (e.g. in international organizations).
  30. ^ Formerly known constitutionally as the "Republic of Macedonia" from 1991 to 2019 and under the international designation of "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia" (FYROM) from 1993 to 2019 due to the Macedonia naming dispute with Greece. Following the Prespa agreement going into effect in February 2019, the country was renamed "North Macedonia".
  31. ^ Spain holds several small overseas territories scattered along the Mediterranean coast bordering Morocco, known as the Plazas de soberanía.
  32. ^ Formerly known as Ceylon until 1972.
  33. ^ Formerly known as the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, its official name from 1991 to 2017
  34. ^ The Sovereign Military Order of Malta is not included, as despite being a sovereign entity it lacks territory and does not claim statehood. Entities considered to be micronations are not included. It is often up to debate whether a micronation truly controls its claimed territory. Also omitted from this list are all uncontacted peoples, either who live in societies that cannot be defined as states or whose statuses as such are not definitively known.

References


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  4. ^ "Tierra del Fuego and Antarctica" . Patagonia-Argentina. Retrieved 12 September 2020.
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  7. ^ "Pakistan the only country not recognizing Armenia – envoy" . News.Az. 5 February 2014. Archived from the original on 23 February 2014. Retrieved 17 February 2014. We are the only country not recognizing Armenia as a state.
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  10. ^ Stjepanović, Dejan (2015). "Dual Substate Citizenship as Institutional Innovation: The Case of Bosnia's Brčko District". Nationalism and Ethnic Politics. 21 (4): 382–383. doi:10.1080/13537113.2015.1095043 . eISSN 1557-2986 . ISSN 1353-7113 . OCLC 5927465455 . S2CID 146578107 .
  11. ^ Tanya Basu (14 December 2013). "Cape Verde Gets New Name: 5 Things to Know About How Maps Change" . National Geographic. Archived from the original on 20 October 2018. Retrieved 8 October 2018.
  12. ^ Constitution of Comoros, Art. 1.
  13. ^ Andreas S. Kakouris (9 July 2010). "Cyprus is not at peace with Turkey" . CNN. Archived from the original on 18 May 2014. Retrieved 17 May 2014. Turkey stands alone in violation of the will of the international community. It is the only country to recognize the "TRNC" and is the only country that does not recognize the Republic of Cyprus and its government.
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  16. ^ "Rotuma Act" . Laws of Fiji (1978 ed.). Suva, Fiji: Government of Fiji. 1927. Archived from the original on 21 June 2010. Retrieved 10 July 2010.
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  18. ^ "The Gambia profile" . BBC News. 14 February 2018. Archived from the original on 11 March 2018. Retrieved 12 March 2018.
  19. ^ Constitution of Greece, Art. 105.
  20. ^ "Iceland - Culture, History, & People" . Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 2 February 2016.
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  24. ^ Daly, Mary E. (January 2007). "The Irish Free State/Éire/Republic of Ireland/Ireland: "A Country by Any Other Name"?" . Journal of British Studies. Cambridge University Press on behalf of The North American Conference on British Studies. 46 (1): 72–90. doi:10.1086/508399 . JSTOR 10.1086/508399 .
  25. ^ "Basic Law: Jerusalem, Capital of Israel" . www.knesset.gov.il. Archived from the original on 5 September 2014. Retrieved 7 July 2014.
  26. ^ "Disputes: International" . CIA World Factbook. Archived from the original on 14 May 2011. Retrieved 8 November 2011.
  27. ^ Gold, Dore; Institute for Contemporary Affairs (26 August 2005). "Legal Acrobatics: The Palestinian Claim that Gaza is Still "Occupied" Even After Israel Withdraws" . Jerusalem Issue Brief, Vol. 5, No. 3. Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. Archived from the original on 21 June 2010. Retrieved 16 July 2010.
  28. ^ Bell, Abraham (28 January 2008). "International Law and Gaza: The Assault on Israel's Right to Self-Defense" . Jerusalem Issue Brief, Vol. 7, No. 29. Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. Archived from the original on 21 June 2010. Retrieved 16 July 2010.
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  30. ^ Salih, Zak M. (17 November 2005). "Panelists Disagree Over Gaza's Occupation Status" . University of Virginia School of Law. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 16 July 2010.
  31. ^ "Israel: 'Disengagement' Will Not End Gaza Occupation" . Human Rights Watch. 29 October 2004. Archived from the original on 1 November 2008. Retrieved 16 July 2010.
  32. ^ "Treaty on Basic Relations between Japan and the Republic of Korea" . Archived from the original on 13 March 2009. Retrieved 27 October 2008.
  33. ^ Keun Min. "Greetings" . Jeju Special Self-Governing Province. Archived from the original on 2 May 2013. Retrieved 10 November 2010.
  34. ^ Federal Foreign Office of Germany (November 2009). "Beziehungen zu Deutschland" . Government of Germany. Archived from the original on 23 July 2010. Retrieved 16 July 2010. For more information, see Foreign relations of the Cook Islands.
  35. ^ China Internet Information Centre (13 December 2007). "Full text of joint communique on the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and Niue" . Xinhua News Agency. Archived from the original on 1 August 2009. Retrieved 16 July 2010.
  36. ^ Republic of Nauru Permanent Mission to the United Nations. "Foreign Affairs" . United Nations. Archived from the original on 4 October 2014. Retrieved 16 July 2010.
  37. ^ a b c "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on April 3, 2012. Retrieved July 15, 2011.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  38. ^ Constitution of Pakistan, Art. 1.
  39. ^ Aslam, Tasnim (11 December 2006). "Pakistan Does Not Claim Kashmir As An Integral Part..." Outlook India. The Outlook Group. Archived from the original on 13 December 2011. Retrieved 27 February 2011.
  40. ^ Williams, Kristen P. (2001). Despite nationalist conflicts: theory and practice of maintaining world peace . Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 154–155. ISBN 978-0-275-96934-9.
  41. ^ Pruthi, R.K. (2001). An Encyclopaedic Survey Of Global Terrorism In 21St Century . Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. pp. 120–121. ISBN 978-81-261-1091-9.
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  44. ^ "AJ&K History" . Archived from the original on 6 January 2018. Retrieved 6 January 2018.
  45. ^ Lansford, Tom (8 April 2014). Political Handbook of the World 2014 . ISBN 9781483333281. Retrieved 5 October 2014.
  46. ^ "The Azad Jammu And Kashmir Interim Constitution Act, 1974" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 October 2013. Retrieved 28 July 2014.
  47. ^ Palestine Liberation Organization. "Road For Palestinian Statehood: Recognition and Admission" . Negotiations Affairs Department. Archived from the original on August 18, 2011. Retrieved July 28, 2011.
  48. ^ See the following on statehood criteria:
  49. ^ a b "Non-member States and Entities" . United Nations. 29 February 2008. Archived from the original on 9 May 2009. Retrieved 30 August 2010.
  50. ^ United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. "Arab States: Palestine" . United Nations. Archived from the original on 4 January 2012. Retrieved 3 December 2011.
  51. ^ "The Palestinians: Background and U.S. Relations" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. 18 March 2021. pp. 40–41.
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  55. ^ a b Абхазия, Южная Осетия и Приднестровье признали независимость друг друга и призвали всех к этому же (in Russian). newsru.com. 17 November 2006. Archived from the original on 16 April 2009. Retrieved 5 June 2011.
  56. ^ a b c Ker-Lindsay, James (2012). The Foreign Policy of Counter Secession: Preventing the Recognition of Contested States . Oxford University Press. p. 53. ISBN 9780199698394. Archived from the original on 9 October 2013. Retrieved 24 September 2013. In addition to the four cases of contested statehood described above, there are three other territories that have unilaterally declared independence and are generally regarded as having met the Montevideo criteria for statehood but have not been recognized by any states: Transnistria, Nagorny Karabakh, and Somaliland.
  57. ^ Krüger, Heiko (2010). The Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict: A Legal Analysis . Springer. p. 55. ISBN 978-3-642-11787-9.
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  65. ^ Kreuter, Aaron (2010). "Self-Determination, Sovereignty, and the Failure of States: Somaliland and the Case for Justified Secession" (PDF). Minnesota Journal of International Law. University of Minnesota Law School. 19:2: 380–381. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 September 2013. Retrieved 24 September 2013. Considering each of these factors, Somaliland has a colorable argument that it meets the theoretical requirements of statehood. ... On these bases, Somaliland appears to have a strong claim to statehood.
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  70. ^ Jansen, Dinah (2009). "The Conflict between Self-Determination and Territorial Integrity: the South Ossetian Paradigm" . Geopolitics Vs. Global Governance: Reinterpreting International Security. Centre for Foreign Policy Studies, University of Dalhousie: 222–242. ISBN 978-1-896440-61-3. Archived from the original on 19 August 2018. Retrieved 14 December 2017.
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  73. ^ Regions and territories: Trans-Dniester
  74. ^ Hersch Lauterpacht (2012). Recognition in International Law . Cambridge University Press. p. 419. ISBN 9781107609433.
  75. ^ Hahn, Gordon (2002). Russia's Revolution from Above, 1985–2000: Reform, Transition, and Revolution in the Fall of the Soviet Communist Regime. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers. p. 527. ISBN 978-0765800497.
  76. ^ Griffiths, Ryan (2016). Age of Secession: The International and Domestic Determinants of State Birth. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 85, 213–242. ISBN 978-1107161627.
  77. ^ The following bullets are grouped according to the availability of sources for the two criteria ((a) and/or (b)). This arrangement is not intended to reflect the relative importance of the two theories. Additional details are discussed in the state's individual entries.

Bibliography









Categories: Lists of countries




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