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Doric or Dorian (Ancient Greek: Δωρισμός, romanized: Dōrismós) was an Ancient Greek dialect. Its variants were spoken in the southern and eastern Peloponnese as well as in Sicily, Epirus, Southern Italy, Crete, Rhodes, some islands in the southern Aegean Sea and some cities on the south east coast of Anatolia. Together with Northwest Greek, it forms the "Western group" of classical Greek dialects. By Hellenistic times, under the Achaean League, an Achaean-Doric koiné language appeared, exhibiting many peculiarities common to all Doric dialects, which delayed the spread of the Attic-based Koine Greek to the Peloponnese until the 2nd century BC.
It is widely accepted that Doric originated in the mountains of Epirus in northwestern Greece, the original seat of the Dorians. It was expanded to all other regions during the Dorian invasion (c. 1150 BC) and the colonisations that followed. The presence of a Doric state (Doris) in central Greece, north of the Gulf of Corinth, led to the theory that Doric had originated in northwest Greece or maybe beyond in the Balkans. The dialect's distribution towards the north extends to the Megarian colony of Byzantium and the Corinthian colonies of Potidaea, Epidamnos, Apollonia and Ambracia; there, it further added words to what would become the Albanian language, probably via traders from a now-extinct Illyrian intermediary. In the north, local epigraphical evidence includes the decrees of the Epirote League, the Pella curse tablet, three additional lesser known Macedonian inscriptions (all of them identifiable as Doric), numerous inscriptions from a number of Greek colonies, etc.. Furthermore, we also have plenty of local coins and names that assist us in our study of the northern Doric dialects. Southern dialects, in addition to numerous inscriptions, coins, and names, have also provided much more literary evidence through authors such as Alcman, Pindar, Archimedes of Syracuse, and many others, all of whom wrote in Doric. Last, we also have ancient dictionaries, such as the one from Hesychius of Alexandria, whose work preserved many dialectal words from throughout the Greek-speaking world.
Where the Doric dialect group fits in the overall classification of ancient Greek dialects depends to some extent on the classification. Several views are stated under Greek dialects. The prevalent theme of most views listed there is that Doric is a subgroup of West Greek. Some use the terms Northern Greek or Northwest Greek instead. The geographic distinction is only verbal and ostensibly is misnamed: all of Doric was spoken south of "Southern Greek" or "Southeastern Greek."
Be that as it may, "Northern Greek" is based on a presumption that Dorians came from the north and on the fact that Doric is closely related to Northwest Greek. When the distinction began is not known. All the "northerners" might have spoken one dialect at the time of the Dorian invasion; certainly, Doric could only have further differentiated into its classical dialects when the Dorians were in place in the south. Thus West Greek is the most accurate name for the classical dialects.
Tsakonian, a descendant of Laconian Doric (Spartan), is still spoken on the southern Argolid coast of the Peloponnese, in the modern prefectures of Arcadia and Laconia. Today it is a source of considerable interest to linguists, and an endangered dialect.
Laconian was spoken by the population of Laconia in the southern Peloponnese and also by its colonies, Taras and Herakleia in Magna Graecia. Sparta was the seat of ancient Laconia.
Laconian is attested in inscriptions on pottery and stone from the seventh century BC. A dedication to Helen dates from the second quarter of the seventh century. Taras was founded in 706 and its founders must already have spoken Laconic.
Many documents from the state of Sparta survive, whose citizens called themselves Lacedaemonians after the name of the valley in which they lived. Homer calls it "hollow Lacedaemon", though he refers to a pre-Dorian period. The seventh century Spartan poet Alcman used a dialect that some consider to be predominantly Laconian. Philoxenus of Alexandria wrote a treatise On the Laconian dialect.
Argolic was spoken in the thickly settled northeast Peloponnese at, for example, Argos, Mycenae, Hermione, Troezen, Epidaurus, and as close to Athens as the island of Aegina. As Mycenaean Greek had been spoken in this dialect region in the Bronze Age, it is clear that the Dorians overran it but were unable to take Attica. The Dorians went on from Argos to Crete and Rhodes.
Ample inscriptional material of a legal, political and religious content exists from at least the sixth century BC.
Corinthian was spoken first in the isthmus region between the Peloponnesus and mainland Greece; that is, the Isthmus of Corinth. The cities and states of the Corinthian dialect region were Corinth, Sicyon, Archaies Kleones, Phlius, the colonies of Corinth in western Greece: Corcyra, Leucas, Anactorium, Ambracia and others, the colonies in and around Italy: Syracuse, Sicily and Ancona, and the colonies of Corcyra: Dyrrachium, and Apollonia. The earliest inscriptions at Corinth date from the early sixth century BC. They use a Corinthian epichoric alphabet. (See under Attic Greek.)
Corinth contradicts the prejudice that Dorians were rustic militarists, as some consider the speakers of Laconian to be. Positioned on an international trade route, Corinth played a leading part in the re-civilizing of Greece after the centuries of disorder and isolation following the collapse of Mycenaean Greece.
The Northwest Doric (or "Northwest Greek", with "Northwest Doric" now considered more accurate so as not to distance the group from Doric proper) group is closely related to Doric proper, while sometimes there is no distinction between Doric and the Northwest Doric. Whether it is to be considered a part of the southern Doric Group or the latter a part of it or the two considered subgroups of West Greek, the dialects and their grouping remain the same. West Thessalian and Boeotian had come under a strong Northwest Doric influence.
While Northwest Doric is generally seen as a dialectal group, dissenting views exist, such as that of Méndez-Dosuna, who argues that Northwest Doric is not a proper dialectal group but rather merely a case of areal dialectal convergence. Throughout the Northwest Doric area, most internal differences did not hinder mutual understanding, though Filos, citing Bubenik, notes that there were certain cases where a bit of accommodation may have been necessary.
The earliest epigraphic texts for Northwest Doric date to the 6th–5th century BCE. These are thought to provide evidence for Northwest Doric features, especially the phonology and morphophonology, but most of the features thus attributed to Northwest Doric are not exclusive to it. The Northwest Doric dialects differ from the main Doric Group dialects in the below features:
- Dative plural of the third declension in -οις (-ois) (instead of -σι (-si)): Ἀκαρνάνοις ἱππέοις Akarnanois hippeois for Ἀκαρνᾶσιν ἱππεῦσιν Akarnasin hippeusin (to the Acarnanian knights).
- ἐν (en) + accusative (instead of εἰς (eis)): en Naupakton (into Naupactus).
- -στ (-st) for -σθ (-sth): γενέσται genestai for genesthai (to become), μίστωμα mistôma for misthôma (payment for hiring).
- ar for er: amara /Dor. amera/Att. hêmera (day), Elean wargon for Doric wergon and Attic ergon (work)
- Dative singular in -oi instead of -ôi: τοῖ Ἀσκλαπιοῖ, Doric τῷ Ἀσκλαπιῷ, Attic Ἀσκληπιῷ (to Asclepius)
- Middle participle in -eimenos instead of -oumenos
Four or five dialects of Northwestern Doric are recognised.
This dialect was spoken in Phocis and in its main settlement, Delphi. Because of that it is also cited as Delphian. Plutarch says that Delphians pronounce b in the place of p (βικρὸν for πικρὸν)
Locrian Greek is attested in two locations:
The dialect of Elis (earliest c. 600 BC) is considered, after Aeolic Greek, one of the most difficult for the modern reader of epigraphic texts.
Spoken at the Dodona oracle, (earliest c. 550–500 BC) firstly under control of the Thesprotians; later organized in the Epirote League (since c. 370 BC).
Most scholars maintain that ancient Macedonian was a Greek dialect, probably of the Northwestern Doric group in particular. Olivier Masson, in his article for The Oxford Classical Dictionary, talks of "two schools of thought": one rejecting "the Greek affiliation of Macedonian" and preferring "to treat it as an Indo-European language of the Balkans" of contested affiliation (examples are Bonfante 1987, and Russu 1938); the other favouring "a purely Greek nature of Macedonian as a northern Greek dialect" with numerous adherents from the 19th century and on (Fick 1874; Hoffmann 1906; Hatzidakis 1897 etc.; Kalleris 1964 and 1976).
Masson himself argues with the largely Greek character of the Macedonian onomastics and sees Macedonian as "a Greek dialect, characterised by its marginal position and by local pronunciations" and probably most closely related to the dialects of the Greek North-West (Locrian, Aetolian, Phocidian, Epirote). Brian D. Joseph acknowledges the closeness of Macedonian to Greek (even contemplating to group them into a "Hellenic branch" of Indo-European), but retains that "[t]he slender evidence is open to different interpretations, so that no definitive answer is really possible". Johannes Engels has pointed to the Pella curse tablet, written in Doric Greek: "This has been judged to be the most important ancient testimony to substantiate that Macedonian was a north-western Greek and mainly a Doric dialect". Hatzopoulos has suggested that the Macedonian dialect of the 4th century BC, as attested in the Pella curse tablet, was a sort of Macedonian ‘koine’ resulting from the encounter of the idiom of the ‘Aeolic’-speaking populations around Mount Olympus and the Pierian Mountains with the Northwest Greek-speaking Argead Macedonians hailing from Argos Orestikon, who founded the kingdom of Lower Macedonia. However, according to Hatzopoulos, B. Helly expanded and improved his own earlier suggestion and presented the hypothesis of a (North-)‘Achaean’ substratum extending as far north as the head of the Thermaic Gulf, which had a continuous relation, in prehistoric times both in Thessaly and Macedonia, with the Northwest Greek-speaking populations living on the other side of the Pindus mountain range, and contacts became cohabitation when the Argead Macedonians completed their wandering from Orestis to Lower Macedonia in the 7th c. BC. According to this hypothesis, Hatzopoulos concludes that the Macedonian Greek dialect of the historical period, which is attested in inscriptions, is a sort of koine resulting from the interaction and the influences of various elements, the most important of which are the North-Achaean substratum, the Northwest Greek idiom of the Argead Macedonians, and the Thracian and Phrygian adstrata.
Northwest Doric koina
The Northwest Doric koina refers to a supraregional North-West common variety that that emerged in the third and second centuries BCE, and was used in the official texts of the Aetolian League. Such texts have been found in W. Locris, Phocis, and Phtiotis, among other sites. It contained a mix of native Northwest Doric dialectal elements and Attic forms. It was apparently based on the most general features of Northwest Doric, eschewing less common local traits.
Its rise was driven by both linguistic and non-linguistic factors, with non-linguistic motivating factors including the spread of the rival Attic-Ionic koine after it was recruited by the Macedonian state for administration, and the political unification of a vast territories by the Aetolian League and the state of Epirus. The Northwest Doric koina was thus both a linguistic and a political rival of the Attic-Ionic koina.
Proto-Greek long *ā is retained as ā, in contrast to Attic developing a long open ē (eta) in at least some positions.
- Doric gā mātēr ~ Attic gē mētēr 'earth mother'
Compensatory lengthening of e and o
In certain Doric dialects (Severe Doric), *e and *o lengthen by compensatory lengthening or contraction to eta or omega, in contrast to Attic ei and ou (spurious diphthongs).
- Severe Doric -ō ~ Attic -ou (second-declension genitive singular)
- -ōs ~ -ous (second-declension accusative plural)
- -ēn ~ -ein (present, second aorist infinitive active)
Contraction of a and e
Contraction: Proto-Greek *ae > Doric ē (eta) ~ Attic ā.
Proto-Greek *eo, *ea > some Doric dialects' io, ia.
Proto-Greek short *a > Doric short a ~ Attic e in certain words.
- Doric hiaros, Artamis ~ Attic hieros 'holy', Artemis
Proto-Greek *-ti is retained (assibilated to -si in Attic).
- Doric phāti ~ Attic phēsi 'he says' (3rd sing. pres. of athematic verb)
- legonti ~ legousi 'they say' (3rd pl. pres. of thematic verb)
- wīkati ~ eikosi 'twenty'
- triākatioi ~ triākosioi 'three hundred'
Proto-Greek *ts > -ss- between vowels. (Attic shares the same development, but further shortens the geminate to -s-.)
- Proto-Greek *métsos > Doric messos ~ Attic mesos 'middle' (from Proto-Indo-Europan *médʰyos, compare Latin medius)
Initial *w (ϝ) is preserved in earlier Doric (lost in Attic).
- Doric woikos ~ Attic oikos 'house' (from Proto-Indo-European *weyḱ-, *woyḱ-, compare Latin vīcus 'village')
Literary texts in Doric and inscriptions from the Hellenistic age have no digamma.
For information on the peculiarities of Doric accentuation, see Ancient Greek accent#Dialect variation
Numeral tetores ~ Attic tettares, Ionic tesseres "four".
Ordinal prātos ~ Attic–Ionic prōtos "first".
Demonstrative pronoun tēnos "this" ~ Attic–Ionic (e)keinos
t for h (from Proto-Indo-European s) in article and demonstrative pronoun.
- Doric toi, tai; toutoi, tautai
- ~ Attic-Ionic hoi, hai; houtoi, hautai.
Third person plural, athematic or root aorist -n ~ Attic -san.
- Doric edon ~ Attic–Ionic edosan
First person plural active -mes ~ Attic–Ionic -men.
Future -se-ō ~ Attic -s-ō.
- prāxētai (prāk-se-etai) ~ Attic–Ionic prāxetai
Modal particle ka ~ Attic–Ionic an.
- Doric ai ka, ai de ka, ai tis ka ~ ean, ean de, ean tis
Temporal adverbs in -ka ~ Attic–Ionic -te.
Locative adverbs in -ei ~ Attic/Koine -ou.
The aorist and future of verbs in -izō, -azō has x (versus Attic/Koine s).
- Doric agōnixato ~ Attic agōnisato "he contended"
Similarly k before suffixes beginning with t.
- αἰγάδες aigades (Attic αἶγες aiges) "goats"
- αἶγες aiges (Attic κύματα kymata) "waves"
- ἁλία halia (Attic ἐκκλησία ekklēsia) "assembly" (Cf. Heliaia)
- βρύκαιναι brykainai (Attic ἱέρειαι hiereiai) "priestesses"
- βρυκετός bryketos (Attic βρυγμός brygmos, βρυκηθμός brykēthmos) "chewing, grinding, gnashing with the teeth"
- δαμιοργοί damiorgoi (Attic ἄρχοντες archontes) "high officials". Cf. Attic δημιουργός dēmiourgos "public worker for the people (dēmos), craftsman, creator"; Hesychius δαμιουργοί· αἱ πόρναι "prostitutes". Zamiourgoi Elean.
- Ἐλωός Elôos Hephaestus Ἥφαιστος παρὰ Δωριεῦσιν
- κάρρων karrōn (Attic κρείττων kreittōn) "stronger" (Ionic kreissōn, Cretan kartōn )
- κορύγης korygēs (Attic κῆρυξ kēryx) "herald, messenger" (Aeolic karoux)
- λαιός laios (Homeric, Attic and Modern Greek ἀριστερός aristeros) "left".Cretan: λαία laia, Attic aspis shield, Hesych. λαῖφα laipha λαίβα laiba, because the shield was held with the left hand. Cf.Latin:laevus
- λαία laia (Attic, Modern Greek λεία leia) "prey"
- λέω (λείω) le(i)ō (Attic ἐθέλω ethelō) "will"
- οἴνωτρος oinōtros "vine pole" (: Greek οἶνος oinos "wine"). Cf. Oenotrus
- μογίοντι mogionti (Ionic πυρέσσουσι pyressousi) "they are on fire, have fever" (= Attic μογοῦσι mogousi "they suffer, take pains to")
- μυρμηδόνες myrmēdônes (Attic μύρμηκες myrmēkes) "ants". Cf. Myrmidons
- ὄπτιλλος optillos or optilos 'eye' (Attic ophthalmos) (Latin oculus) (Attic optikos of sight, Optics)
- πάομαι paomai (Attic κτάομαι ktaomai) "acquire"
- ῥαπιδοποιός rhapidopoios poet, broiderer, pattern-weaver, boot-maker (rhapis needle for Attic rhaphis )
- σκανά skana (Attic skênê) tent, stage, scene) (Homeric klisiê) (Doric skanama encampment)
- τανθαλύζειν tanthalyzein (Attic τρέμειν tremein) "to tremble"
- τύνη tunē or tounē 'you nominative' (Attic συ) dative τέειν teein (Attic σοί soi)
- χανάκτιον chanaktion (Attic μωρόν mōron)(chan goose)
- Βαλλακράδες Ballacrades title of Argive athletes on a feast-day (Cf.achras wild pear-tree)
- Δαυλὶς Daulis mimic festival at Argos (acc. Pausanias 10.4.9 daulis means thicket) (Hes.daulon fire log)
- δροόν droon strong (Attic ischyron, dynaton)
- κέστερ kester youngman (Attic neanias)
- κυλλάραβις kyllarabis discus and gymnasium at Argos
- σεμαλία semalia ragged, tattered garments Attic rhakē, cf. himatia clothes)
- ὤβεα ôbea eggs (Attic ὠά ôa )
- ἀγέλα agela "group of boys in the Cretan agōgē". Cf. Homeric Greek ἀγέλη agelē "herd" (Cretan apagelos not yet received in agelê, boy under 17)
- ἀδνός adnos holy, pure (Attic ἁγνός hagnos) (Ariadne)
- ἀϝτὸς aWtos (Attic autos) Hsch. aus αὐς - αὐτός. Κρῆτες καὶ Λάκωνες
- ἄκαρα akara legs (Attic skelê )
- ἁμάκις hamakis once (Attic hapax)
- ἄργετος argetos juniper, cedar (Attic arkeuthos)
- αὐκά auka power (Attic alkê)
- ἀφραττίας aphrattias strong
- βαλικιῶται balikiôtai Koine synepheboi (Attic hêlikiotai 'age-peers' of the same age hêlikia)
- βριτύ britu sweet (Attic glyku)
- δαμιόω damioô , Cretan and Boeotian. for Attic zêmioô to damage, punish, harm
- δαμπόν dampon first milk curdled by heating over embers (Attic puriephthon, puriatê)
- δῶλα dôla ears (Attic ôta) (Tarentine ata )
- Ϝέλχανος Welchanos for Cretan Zeus and Welchanios, Belchanios, Gelchanos (Elchanios Cnossian month)
- ϝεργάδδομαι wergaddomai I work (Attic ergazomai)
- ϝῆμα Wêma garment (Attic heima) (Aeolic emma) (Koine (h)immation)(Cf.Attic amphi-ennumi I dress, amph-iesis clothing)
- ἰβῆν ibên wine (Dialectal Ϝοἶνος Woînos Attic oinos) (accusative ἰβῆνα ibêna)
- ἴττον itton one (Attic hen ἕν)
- καρανώ karanô goat
- ϟόσμος kosmos and kormos archontes in Crete, body of kosmoi (Attic κόσμος order, ornament, honour, world - kormos trunk of a tree)
- κύφερον, κυφή kypheron, kuphê head (Attic kephalê)
- λάκος lakos rag, tattered garment (Attic rhakos) (Aeolic brakos long robe, lacks the sense 'ragged')
- μαλκενίς malkenis (Attic parthenos) Hsch: malakinnês.
- ὄθρυν othrun mountain (Attic oros) (Cf.Othrys)
- ῥυστόν rhyston spear
- σεῖφα seipha darkness (Attic zophos, skotia) (Aeolic dnophos)
- σπεῦσδος speusdos title of Cretan officer (Cf.speudô speus- rush)
- τάγανα tagana (Attic tauta) these things
- τίρος tiros summer (Homeric, Attic theros)
- τρέ tre you, accusative ( Attic se )
- ἀβήρ abêr storeroom οἴκημα στοὰς ἔχον, ταμεῖον Λάκωνες
- ἀβώρ abôr dawn (Attic ἠώς êôs) (Latin aurora)
- ἄδδα adda need, deficiency (Attic endeia ) Aristophanes of Byzantium(fr. 33)
- ἀδδαυόν addauon dry (i.e. azauon) or addanon (Attic xêron)
- αἴκουδα aikouda (Attic aischunē) αἰσχύνη. Λάκωνες
- αἵματία haimatia blood-broth, Spartan Melas Zomos Black soup) (haima haimatos blood)
- ἀΐτας aïtas (Attic ἐρώμενος erōmenos) "beloved boy (in a pederastic relationship)"
- ἀκκόρ akkor tube, bag (Attic askos)
- ἀκχαλίβαρ akchalibar bed (Attic skimpous)(Koine krabbatos)
- ἀμβροτίξας ambrotixas having begun, past participle(amphi or ana..+ ?) (Attic aparxamenos, aparchomai) (Doric -ixas for Attic -isas)
- ἀμπέσσαι ampesai (Attic amphiesai) to dress
- ἀπαβοίδωρ apaboidôr out of tune (Attic ekmelôs) (Cf.Homeric singer Aoidos) / emmelôs, aboidôr in tune
- Ἀπέλλα apella (Attic ἐκκλησία ekklēsia) "assembly in Sparta" (verb apellazein)
- ἀρβυλίς arbylis (Attic ἀρύβαλλος aryballos) (Hesychius: ἀρβυλίδα λήκυθον. Λάκωνες)
- ἄττασι attasi wake up, get up (Attic anastêthi)
- βάβαλον babalon imperative of cry aloud, shout (Attic kraugason)
- βάγαρον bagaron (Attic χλιαρόν chliaron 'warm') (Cf. Attic φώγω phōgō 'roast') (Laconian word)
- βαφά bapha broth (Attic zômos) (Attic βαφή baphê dipping of red-hot iron in water (Koine and Modern Greek βαφή vafi dyeing)
- ϝείκατι weikati twenty (Attic εἴκοσι eikosi)
- βέλα bela sun and dawn Laconian (Attic helios Cretan abelios )
- βερνώμεθα bernômetha Attic klêrôsômetha we will cast or obtain by lot (inf. berreai) (Cf.Attic meiresthai receive portion, Doric bebramena for heimarmenê, allotted by Moirai)
- βέσκερος beskeros bread (Attic artos)
- βήλημα bêlêma hindrance, river dam (Laconian)
- βηρίχαλκον bêrichalkon fennel (Attic marathos) (chalkos bronze)
- βίβασις bibasis Spartan dance for boys and girls
- βίδυοι bidyoi bideoi, bidiaioi also "officers in charge of the ephebes at Sparta"
- βίὡρ biôr almost, maybe (Attic ἴσως isôs, σχεδόν schedon) wihôr (ϝίὡρ)
- βλαγίς blagis spot (Attic kêlis)
- βοῦα boua "group of boys in the Spartan agōgē"
- βο(υ)αγός bo(u)agos "leader of a boua at Sparta"
- βυλλίχης bullichês Laconian dancer (Attic orchêstês)
- βώνημα bônêma speech (Homeric, Ionic eirêma eireo ) (Cf.Attic phônêma sound, speech)
- γαβεργόρ gabergor labourer (ga earth wergon work) (Cf.geôrgos farmer)
- γαιάδας gaiadas citizens, people (Attic dêmos)
- γονάρ gonar mother Laconian (gonades children Eur. Med. 717)
- δαβελός dabelos torch (Attic dalos)(Syracusan daelos, dawelos )(Modern Greek davlos) (Laconian δαβῇ dabêi (Attic kauthêi) it should be burnt)
- δίζα diza goat (Attic aix) and Hera aigophagos Goat-eater in Sparta
- εἴρην eirēn (Attic ἔφηβος ephēbos) "Spartan youth who has completed his 12th year"
- εἰσπνήλας eispnēlas (Attic ἐραστής erastēs) one who inspires love, a lover (Attic eispneô inhale, breathe)
- ἐξωβάδια exôbadia (Attic enôtia ; ôta ears)
- ἔφοροι ephoroi (Attic ἔφοροι ἄρχοντες archontes) "high officials at Sparta". Cf. Attic ἔφορος ephoros "overseer, guardian"
- Θοράτης Thoratês Apollon thoraios containing the semen, god of growth and increase
- θρῶναξ thrônax drone (Attic kêphên)
- κάφα kapha washing, bathing-tub (Attic loutêr) (Cf.skaphê basin, bowl)
- κελοῖα keloia (kelya, kelea also) "contest for boys and youths at Sparta"
- κίρα kira fox (Attic alôpêx) (Hsch kiraphos).
- μεσόδμα mesodma, messodoma woman and ἀνθρωπώ anthrôpô (Attic gunê)
- μυρταλίς myrtalis Butcher's broom (Attic oxumursinê) (Myrtale real name of Olympias)
- πάσορ pasor passion (Attic pathos)
- πόρ por leg, foot (Attic pous)
- πούρδαιν pourdain restaurant (Koine mageirion) (Cf.purdalon , purodansion (from pyr fire hence pyre)
- σαλαβάρ salabar cook (Common Doric/Attic mageiros)
- σίκα sika 'pig' (Attic hus) and grôna female pig.
- σιρία siria safeness (Attic asphaleia)
- ψιθωμίας psithômias ill, sick (Attic asthenês) Λάκωνες τὸν ἀσθενῆ
- ψιλάκερ psilaker first dancer
- ὠβά ôba (Attic κώμη kōmē) "village; one of five quarters of the city of Sparta"
Magna Graecian Doric
- ἀστύξενοι astyxenoi Metics, Tarentine
- βάννας bannas king basileus, wanax, anax
- βειλαρμοσταὶ beilarmostai cavalry officers Tarentine (Attic ilarchai ) (ilē, squadron + Laconian harmost-)
- δόστορε dostore 'you make' Tarentine (Attic ποιεῖτε)
- Θαύλια Thaulia "festival of Tarentum", θαυλακίζειν thaulakizein 'to demand sth with uproar' Tarentine, θαυλίζειν thaulizein "to celebrate like Dorians", Θαῦλος Thaulos "Macedonian Ares", Thessalian Ζεὺς Θαύλιος Zeus Thaulios, Athenian Ζεὺς Θαύλων Zeus Thaulon, Athenian family Θαυλωνίδαι Thaulonidai
- ῥάγανον rhaganon easy Thuriian (Attic rhaidion) (Aeolic braidion)
- σκύτας skytas 'back-side of neck' (Attic trachēlos)
- τήνης tênês till Tarentine (Attic ἕως heôs)
- τρυφώματα tryphômata whatever are fed or nursed, children, cattle (Attic thremmata)
- ὑετίς huetis jug, amphora Tarentine (Attic hydris, hydria)(huetos rain)
- ἀγρίδιον agridion 'village' Aetolian (Attic chôrion)(Hesychius text: *ἀγρίδιον κωμάριον, χωρίον vA [παρὰ Αἰτωλοῖς] dim. of agros countryside, field)
- ἀερία aeria fog Aetolian (Attic omichlê, aêr air)(Hsch.ἀερία ὀμίχλη, παρὰ Αἰτωλοῖς.)
- κίββα kibba wallet, bag Aetolian (Attic πήρα pêra) (Cypr. kibisis) (Cf.Attic κιβωτός kibôtos ark kibôtion box Suid. cites kibos)
- πλήτομον plêtomon Acarnanian old, ancient (Attic palaion ,palaiotaton very old)
- ἀϝλανέο̄ς aWlaneôs without fraud, honestly IvO7 (Attic adolôs)(Hsch.alanes true)(Tarentinian alaneôs absolutely)
- ἀμίλλυξ amillux scythe (Attic drepanon) in accus. ἀμίλλυκα (Boeotian amillakas wine)
- ἀττάμιος attamios unpunished (Attic azêmios) from an earliest addamios (cf.Cretan, Boeotian damioô punish)
- βάβακοι babakoi cicadas Elean (Attic tettiges) (in Pontus babakoi frogs)
- βαίδειος baideios ready (Attic hetoimos) (heteos fitness)
- βενέοι beneoi Elean
- βορσός borsos cross (Attic stauros)
- βρα bra brothers, brotherhood (Cf.Attic phratra )
- βρατάνα bratana ladle (Attic torune) (Doric rhatana) (cf. Aeolic bradanizô brandish, shake off)
- δειρῆται deirêtai small birds (Macedonian δρῆες drêes or δρῆγες drêges) (Attic strouthoi) (Hsc. trikkos small bird and king by Eleans)
- ϝράτρα Wratra law, contract (Attic rhetra)
- σερός seros yesterday (Attic chthes)
- στερχανά sterchana funeral feast (Attic perideipnon)
- φίλαξ philax young oak (Macedonian ilax, Latin ilex (Laconian dilax ariocarpus, sorbus)(Modern Cretan azilakas Quercus ilex)
- φόρβυτα phorbuta gums (Attic oula) (Homeric pherbô feed, eat)
- ἀγχωρίξαντας anchôrixantas having transferred, postponed Chaonian (Attic metapherô, anaballô) (anchôrizo anchi near +horizô define and Doric x instead of Attic s) (Cf. Ionic anchouros neighbouring) not to be confused with Doric anchôreô Attic ana-chôreô go back, withdraw.
- ἀκαθαρτία akathartia impurity (Attic/Doric akatharsia) (Lamelles Oraculaires 14)
- ἀποτράχω apotrachô run away (Attic/Doric apotrechô )
- ἄσπαλοι aspaloi fishes Athamanian (Attic ichthyes) (Ionic chlossoi) (Cf.LSJ aspalia angling, aspalieus fisherman, aspalieuomai I angle metaph. of a lover, aspalisai: halieusai, sagêneusai. (hals sea)
- Ἄσπετος Aspetos divine epithet of Achilles in Epirus (Homeric aspetos 'unspeakable, unspeakably great, endless' (Aristotle F 563 Rose; Plutarch, Pyrrhus 1; SH 960,4)
- γνώσκω gnôskô know (Attic gignôskô) (Ionic/Koine ginôskô) (Latin nōsco)(Attic gnôsis, Latin notio knowledge) (ref.Orion p. 42.17)
- διαιτός diaitos (Hshc. judge kritês) (Attic diaitêtês arbitrator) Lamelles Oraculaires 16
- ἐσκιχρέμεν eskichremen lend out πὲρ τοῖ ἀργύρροι (Lamelles Oraculaires 8 of Eubandros) (Attic eis + inf. kichranai from chraomai use)
- Ϝεῖδυς Weidus knowing (Doric Ϝειδώς) weidôs) (Elean ϝειζός weizos) (Attic εἰδώς) eidôs) (PIE *weid- "to know, to see", Sanskrit veda I know) Cabanes, L'Épire 577,50
- κάστον kaston wood Athamanian (Attic xylon from xyô scrape, hence xyston); Sanskrit kāṣṭham ("wood, timber, firewood") (Dialectical kalon wood, traditionally derived from kaiô burn kauston sth that can be burnt, kausimon fuel)
- λῃτῆρες lêïtêres Athamanian priests with garlands Hes.text ἱεροὶ στεφανοφόροι. Ἀθαμᾶνες(LSJ: lêitarchoi public priests ) (hence Leitourgia
- μανύ manu small Athamanian (Attic mikron, brachu) (Cf. manon rare) (PIE *men- small, thin) (Hsch. banon thin) ( manosporos thinly sown manophullos with small leaves Thphr.HP7.6.2-6.3)
- Νάϊος Naios or Naos epithet of Dodonaean Zeus (from the spring in the oracle) (cf. Naiades and Pan Naios in Pydna SEG 50:622 (Homeric naô flow, Attic nama spring) (PIE *sna-)
- παγάομαι pagaomai 'wash in the spring' (of Dodona) (Doric paga Attic pêgê running water, fountain)
- παμπασία pampasia (to ask peri pampasias cliché phrase in the oracle) (Attic pampêsia full property) (Doric paomai obtain)
- Πελιγᾶνες Peliganes or Peligones (Epirotan, Macedonian senators)
- πρᾶμι prami do optative (Attic πράττοιμι prattoimi) Syncope (Lamelles Oraculaires 22)
- τίνε tine (Attic/Doric tini) to whom (Lamelles Oraculaires 7)
- τριθυτικόν trithutikon triple sacrifice tri + thuo(Lamelles Oraculaires 138)
- ^ Roger D. Woodard (2008), "Greek dialects", in: The Ancient Languages of Europe, ed. R. D. Woodard, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 51.
- ^ Buck, Carl Darling (1900). "The Source of the So-Called Achaean-Doric κοινη". American Journal of Philology. 21 (2): 193–196. doi:10.2307/287905 . JSTOR 287905 .
- ^ Çabej, E. (1961). "Die alteren Wohnsitze der Albaner auf der Balkanhalbinsel im Lichte der Sprache und der Ortsnamen". VII Congresso Internaz. Di Sciense Onomastiche: 241–251.; Albanian version BUShT 1962:1.219-227
- ^ Eric Hamp. Birnbaum, Henrik; Puhvel, Jaan (eds.). The position of Albanian, Ancient IE dialects, Proceedings of the Conference on IE linguistics held at the University of California, Los Angeles, April 25–27, 1963 .
- ^ Huld, Martin E. (1986). "Accentual Stratification of Ancient Greek Loanwords in Albanian". Zeitschrift für vergleichende Sprachforschung. 99 (2): 245–253.
- ^ O’Neil, James. 26th Conference of the Australasian Society for Classical Studies, 2005.
- ^ a b c d Panagiotis Filos (2017). "The Dialectal Variety of Epirus". In Georgios Giannakis; Emilio Crespo; Panagiotis Filos (eds.). Studies in Ancient Greek Dialects: From Central Greece to the Black Sea. Berlin and Boston: Walter de Gruyter. p. 227.
The North-West group together with Doric (proper) formed the so-called 'West Greek' major dialectal group (or simply 'Doric' […]). However, the term 'North-West Doric' is considered more accurate nowadays […] since there is more emphasis on the many features that are common to both groups rather than on their less numerous and largely secondary differences.
- ^ Los dialectos dorios del Noroeste. Gramática y estudio dialectal (in Spanish). Salamanca. 1985. p. 508.
- ^ Panagiotis Filos (2017). "The Dialectal Variety of Epirus". In Georgios Giannakis; Emilio Crespo; Panagiotis Filos (eds.). Studies in Ancient Greek Dialects: From Central Greece to the Black Sea. Berlin and Boston: Walter de Gruyter. p. 230.
- ^ Mendez Dosuna, Doric dialects, p. 452 online at Google Books).
- ^ Goodwin, William Watson (1874). Plutarch's Morals, tr. by several hands. Corrected and revised by W.W. Goodwin . Greek questions 9.
- ^ IG IX,1² 3:609
- ^ Die Inschriften von Olympia, IvO 1.
- ^ Sophie Minon, Les Inscriptions Éléennes Dialectale, reviewed by Stephen Colvin (online ).
- ^ Lamelles Oraculaires 77.
- ^ John Potter (1751). Archaeologia Graeca Or the Antiquities of Greece . C. Strahan.
- ^ Cabanes, L'Épire de la mort de Pyrrhos a la conquête romaine (272–167 av. J.C.). Paris 1976, p. 534,1.
- ^ Hatzopoulos, Miltiades B. (2017). "Recent Research in the Ancient Macedonian Dialect: Consolidation and New Perspectives" . In Giannakis, Georgios K.; Crespo, Emilio; Filos, Panagiotis (eds.). Studies in Ancient Greek Dialects: From Central Greece to the Black Sea. Walter de Gruyter. p. 299. ISBN 978-3-11-053081-0.
- ^ Hammond, Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière (1993) . The Macedonian State. Origins, Institutions and History (reprint ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-814927-1.
- ^ Michael Meier-Brügger: Indo-European linguistics. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin and New York 2003, p. 28 (online on Google books): "The Macedonian of the ancient kingdom of northern Greece is probably nothing other than a northern Greek dialect of Doric".
- ^ Crespo, Emilio (2017). "The Softening of Obstruent Consonants in the Macedonian Dialect". In Giannakis, Georgios K.; Crespo, Emilio; Filos, Panagiotis (eds.). Studies in Ancient Greek Dialects: From Central Greece to the Black Sea. Walter de Gruyter. p. 329. ISBN 978-3-11-053081-0.
- ^ Olivier Masson (2003) . "Macedonian language" . In Simon Hornblower; Antony Spawforth (eds.). The Oxford Classical Dictionary (revised 3rd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 905–906. ISBN 0-19-860641-9.
- ^ Brian D. Joseph: "Ancient Greek". In: J. Garry et al. (eds.): Facts about the world's major languages: an encyclopedia of the world's major languages, past and present. Online paper , 2001.
- ^ Johannes Engels: "Macedonians and Greeks", p. 95. In: Joseph Roisman, Ian Worthington: A Companion to Ancient Macedonia. Chapter 5. John Wiley & Sons, New York 2011.
- ^ a b c Hatzopoulos, Miltiades B. (2017). "Recent Research in the Ancient Macedonian Dialect: Consolidation and New Perspectives" . In Giannakis, Georgios K.; Crespo, Emilio; Filos, Panagiotis (eds.). Studies in Ancient Greek Dialects: From Central Greece to the Black Sea. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 321–322. ISBN 978-3-11-053081-0.
- ^ Vit Bubenik (2000). "Variety of speech in Greek linguistics: The dialects and the koinè" . In Sylvain Auroux; et al. (eds.). Geschichte der Sprachwissenschaften. Ein internationales Handbuch zur Entwicklung der Sprachforschung von den Anfängen bis zur Gegenwart. Band 1. Berlin and New York: Walter de Gruyter. p. 441 f. ISBN 978-3-11-011103-3.
- ^ a b c Panagiotis Filos (2017). "The Dialectal Variety of Epirus". In Georgios Giannakis; Emilio Crespo; Panagiotis Filos (eds.). Studies in Ancient Greek Dialects: From Central Greece to the Black Sea. Berlin and Boston: Walter de Gruyter. pp. 230–233.
- ^ Vit Bubenik (1989). Hellenistic and Roman Greece as a Sociolinguistic Area. Amsterdam. pp. 193–213.
- ^ Wojciech Sowa (2018). "The dialectology of Greek". In Matthias Fritz; Brian Joseph; Jared Klein (eds.). Handbook of Comparative and Historical Indo-European Linguistics. De Gruyter Mouton. p. 715. ISBN 978-3-11-054036-9.
In different regions of Greece, however, different sorts of koinai emerged, of which the best known was the Doric Koinē, preserving general Doric features, but without local differences, and with an admixture of Attic forms. As in the case of the Doric Koinē, the Northwest Koinē (connected with the so-called Aetolian League) displayed the same mixture of native dialectal elements with Attic elements.
- ^ S. Minon (2014). "Diffusion de l'attique et expansion des koinai dans le Pélopponèse et en Grèce centrale". Actes de la journée internationale de dialectologie grecque du 18 mars 2011, université Paris-Ouest Nanterre. Geneva. pp. 1–18.
- ^ Plutarch Greek question 51
- ^ Dionysism and Comedy  by Xavier Riu
- ^ Raphael Kühner, Friedrich Blass, Ausführliche Grammatik der Griechischen Sprache 
- ^ Elis — Olympia — bef. c. 500-450 BC IvO 7
- ^ Epeiros — Dodona — 4th c. BC SEG 15:397
- ^ The Oracles of Zeus: Dodona, Olympia, Ammon - Page 261  by Herbert William Parke
- ^ Epeiros — Dodona — ~340 BC SEG 26.700 - Trans.
- ^ Alexander the Great: A Reader
 by Ian Worthing
- ^ Greek Mythography in the Roman World 
By Alan Cameron (Aspetides)
- ^ (cf. Athenian secretary: Aspetos, son of Demostratos from Kytheros ~340 BC)
- ^ Pokorny - aspetos
- Bakker, Egbert J., ed. 2010. A companion to the Ancient Greek language. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
- Cassio, Albio Cesare. 2002. "The language of Doric comedy." In The language of Greek comedy. Edited by Anton Willi, 51–83. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- Christidis, Anastasios-Phoivos, ed. 2007. A history of Ancient Greek: From the beginnings to Late Antiquity. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
- Colvin, Stephen C. 2007. A historical Greek reader: Mycenaean to the koiné. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- Horrocks, Geoffrey. 2010. Greek: A history of the language and its speakers. 2nd ed. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
- Palmer, Leonard R. 1980. The Greek language. London: Faber & Faber.