idem is a Latin term meaning "the same". It is commonly abbreviated as id., which is particularly used in legal citations to denote the previously cited source (compare ibid.). It is also used in academic citations to replace the name of a repeated author.

Id. is employed extensively in Canadian legislation and in legal documents of the United States to apply a short description to a section with the same focus as the previous.[1]

Id. is masculine and neuter; ead. (feminine), is the abbreviation for eadem, which also translates to "the same".

As an abbreviation, Id. always takes a period (or full stop) in both British and American usage (see usage of the full stop in abbreviations). Its first known use dates back to the 14th century.[2]




Here, the first citation refers to the case of United States v. Martinez-Fuerte. The volume number cited is 428 and the page on which the case begins is 543, and the page number cited to is 545. The "U.S." between the numerical portions of the citation refers to the United States Reports. 1976 refers to the year that the case was published. The second citation references the first citation and automatically incorporates the same reporter and volume number; however, the page number cited is now 547. Id. refers to the immediately preceding citation, so if the previous citation includes more than one reference, or it is unclear which reference Id. refers to, its usage is inappropriate.

Here, Id. refers to the Executive Order that was mentioned in the previous sentence.[1]


In this example, Id in the second citation indicates that the author is identical to that of the previous citation. That is, the author of the second citation is also Macgillivray, J. A.

See also


Categories: Latin legal terminology | Latin words and phrases | Bibliography | Abbreviations

Information as of: 14.06.2021 05:15:57 CEST

Source: Wikipedia (Authors [History])    License : CC-BY-SA-3.0

Changes: All pictures and most design elements which are related to those, were removed. Some Icons were replaced by FontAwesome-Icons. Some templates were removed (like “article needs expansion) or assigned (like “hatnotes”). CSS classes were either removed or harmonized.
Wikipedia specific links which do not lead to an article or category (like “Redlinks”, “links to the edit page”, “links to portals”) were removed. Every external link has an additional FontAwesome-Icon. Beside some small changes of design, media-container, maps, navigation-boxes, spoken versions and Geo-microformats were removed.

Please note: Because the given content is automatically taken from Wikipedia at the given point of time, a manual verification was and is not possible. Therefore does not guarantee the accuracy and actuality of the acquired content. If there is an Information which is wrong at the moment or has an inaccurate display please feel free to contact us: email.
See also: Legal Notice & Privacy policy.