International Encyclopedia of Unified Science

The International Encyclopedia of Unified Science (IEUS) was a series of publications devoted to unified science. The IEUS was conceived at the Mundaneum Institute in The Hague in the 1930s,[1] and published in the United States beginning in 1938. It was an ambitious project that was never completed.

The IEUS was an output of the Vienna Circle to address the "growing concern throughout the world for the logic, the history, and the sociology of science..."[2] Only the first section Foundations of the Unity of Science (FUS) was published; it contains two volumes for a total of nineteen monographs published from 1938 to 1969.


International Congresses for the Unity of Science

Creation of the IEUS was facilitated by the International Congresses for the Unity of Science organized by members of the Vienna Circle. After a preliminary conference in Prague in 1934, the First International Congress for the Unity of Science was held at the Sorbonne, Paris, 16–21 September 1935.[3]:171 It was attended by about 170 people from over twenty different countries. With the active involvement of Kazimierz Ajdukiewicz (Poland), Susan Stebbing (England), and Federigo Enriques (Italy) the scope of the project for an IEUS was considerably expanded.[3]:173 The congress expressed its approval of the planned IEUS as proposed by the Mundaneum, and further set up a committee to plan future congresses.[3]:173 This committee included the following members:[3]:173

The Third International Congress for the Unity of Science, which was devoted exclusively to the IEUS, was held in Paris, 29–31 July 1937.[3]:182

Volume I

Encyclopedia and Unified Science (FUS I-1)
Otto Neurath, Niels Bohr, John Dewey, Bertrand Russell, Rudolf Carnap, and Charles Morris

Foundations of the Theory of Signs (FUS I-2)
Charles Morris

Foundations of Logic and Mathematics (FUS I-3)
Rudolf Carnap

Linguistic Aspects of Science (FUS I-4)
Leonard Bloomfield

Procedures of Empirical Science (FUS I-5)
Victor F. Lenzen

Principles of the Theory of Probability (FUS I-6)
Ernest Nagel

Foundations of Physics (FUS I-7)
Philipp Frank

Cosmology (FUS I-8)
E. Finlay-Freundlich

Foundations of Biology (FUS I-9)
Felix Mainx

The Conceptual Framework of Psychology (FUS I-10)
Egon Brunswik

Volume II

Foundations of the Social Sciences (FUS II-1)
Otto Neurath

The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (FUS II-2)
Thomas S. Kuhn

Science and the Structure of Ethics (FUS II-3)
Abraham Edel

Theory of Valuation (FUS II-4)
John Dewey

The Technique of Theory Construction (FUS II-5)
Joseph H. Woodger

Methodology of Mathematical Economics and Econometrics (FUS II-6)
Gerhard Tintner

Concept Formation in Empirical Science (FUS II-7)
Carl G. Hempel

The Development of Rationalism and Empiricism (FUS II-8)
George De Santillana, Edgar Zilsel

The Development of Logical Empiricism (FUS II-9)
Joergen Joergensen

Bibliography and Index (FUS II-10)
Herbert Feigl, Charles Morris


Historian David Hollinger argued that the IEUS was a less comprehensive account of the sciences of the time than it could have been, and was especially weak in the social sciences.[4] Hollinger noted that the Encyclopaedia of the Social Sciences, published around the same time, provided a much more comprehensive account of the social sciences: "The Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences (12 vols., New York, 1933–1937) was a prodigious endeavor brought to successful completion by Alvin Johnson. This encyclopedia is a much more important episode in the history of thought than The International Encyclopedia of Unified Science yet has attracted much less attention from historians than the abortive enterprise led by Neurath."[4] Hollinger also said that the scholarly journal Philosophy of Science, founded in 1934, provided a much more inclusive perspective on the sciences in those years than did the IEUS.[4]

See also


  1. ^ Neurath, Otto (1983) [1936]. "An international encyclopedia of unified science". In Cohen, Robert S.; Neurath, Marie; Fawcett, Carolyn R. (eds.). Philosophical papers, 1913–1946 . Vienna Circle collection. 16. Dordrecht; Boston: D. Reidel. pp. 139–144 . doi:10.1007/978-94-009-6995-7_12 . ISBN 9027714835.
  2. ^ Neurath, Otto; Carnap, Rudolf; Morris, Charles W., eds. (1969) [1938]. Foundations of the unity of science: toward an international encyclopedia of unified science. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 103. ISBN 0226575861. OCLC 186129 .
  3. ^ a b c d e Stadler, Friedrich (2015) [2001]. The Vienna Circle: studies in the origins, development, and influence of logical empiricism . Vienna circle institute library. 4 (Abridged and revised ed.). Cham: Springer Verlag. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-16561-5 . ISBN 9783319165608. OCLC 911018849 . Retrieved 22 November 2017.
  4. ^ a b c Hollinger, David A. (May 2011). "The unity of knowledge and the diversity of knowers: science as an agent of cultural integration in the United States between the two world wars". Pacific Historical Review. 80 (2): 211–230 [216–217]. doi:10.1525/phr.2011.80.2.211 .

Further reading

Categories: 1938 non-fiction books | Encyclopedias of science | Encyclopedism | Science studies | Vienna Circle

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