List of totalitarian regimes
This is a list of totalitarian states.
The list distinguishes between totalitarian and authoritarian regimes, listing the former and not the latter. Totalitarianism is an extreme version of authoritarianism. Authoritarianism primarily differs from totalitarianism in that social and economic institutions exist that are not under governmental control.
- ^ Sondrol, Paul C. (2009). "Totalitarian and Authoritarian Dictators: A Comparison of Fidel Castro and Alfredo Stroessner" (PDF). Journal of Latin American Studies. 23 (3): 599–620. doi:10.1017/S0022216X00015868 .
- ^ a b c d e f g h "Totalitarianism" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 2018.
- ^ Rutland, Peter (1993). The Politics of Economic Stagnation in the Soviet Union: The Role of Local Party Organs in Economic Management. Cambridge University Press. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-521-39241-9.
after 1953 ...This was still an oppressive regime, but not a totalitarian one.
- ^ Krupnik, Igor (1995). "4. Soviet Cultural and Ethnic Policies Towards Jews: A Legacy Reassessed". In Ro'i, Yaacov (ed.). Jews and Jewish Life in Russia and the Soviet Union. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-714-64619-0.
The era of 'social engineering' in the Soviet Union ended with the death of Stalin in 1953 or soon after; and that was the close of the totalitarian regime itself.
- ^ von Beyme, Klaus (2014). On Political Culture, Cultural Policy, Art and Politics. Springer. p. 65. ISBN 978-3-319-01559-0.
The Soviet Union after the death of Stalin moved from totalitarianism to authoritarian rule.
- ^ "Foundations of the Nazi State" . www.ushmm.org.
- ^ "A Unique Death Cult" . Slate. 21 February 2017.
- ^ Final Report, pp.115, 323
- ^ "Info" . eujournal.org. Retrieved 2020-02-17.
- ^ Mullahi, Anila; Dhimitri, Jostina (2015). "Education Issues in a Totalitarian State (Case of Albania)" . Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences. 174: 4103–4107. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.01.1161 .
- ^ Bedini, Belina (2014). "The Legitimation of the Albanian Totalitarian Regime" . Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences. 5 (16): 500–5. doi:10.5901/mjss.2014.v5n16p500 .
- ^ "Albania's EU aspirations still hampered by totalitarian past | DW | 22.03.2012" .
- ^ "North Korea country profile" . BBC News. 9 April 2018 – via www.bbc.co.uk.
- ^ "Kim Jong Un's North Korea: Life inside the totalitarian state" . Washington Post.
- ^ Inc, Encyclopaedia Britannica (1 March 2014). Britannica Book of the Year 2014 . Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc. ISBN 9781625131713.
- ^ a b Rummel, R.J. (1994). "Democide in totalitarian states: Mortacracies and megamurderers.". In Charney, Israel W. (ed.). Widening circle of genocide. Transaction Publishers. p. 5.
There is much confusion about what is meant by totalitarian in the literature, including the denial that such systems even exist. I define a totalitarian state as one with a system of government that is unlimited constitutionally or by countervailing powers in society (such as by a church, rural gentry, labor unions, or regional powers); is not held responsible to the public by periodic secret and competitive elections; and employs its unlimited power to control all aspects of society, including the family, religion, education, business, private property, and social relationships. Under Stalin, the Soviet Union was thus totalitarian, as was Mao's China, Pol Pot's Cambodia, Hitler's Germany, and U Ne Win's Burma
- ^ "Bulletin" (PDF). www.umk.ro. Retrieved 2020-02-17.
- ^ Thompson, M. R. (1 June 2002). "Totalitarian and Post-Totalitarian Regimes in Transitions and Non-Transitions from Communism". Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions. 3 (1): 79–106. doi:10.1080/714005469 .
- ^ O'Kane, Rosemary H T (1993). "Cambodia in the zero years: rudimentary totalitarianism". Third World Quarterly. 14 (4): 735–748. doi:10.1080/01436599308420354 . JSTOR 3992949 .
- ^ Taylor, Adam (12 June 2015). "The brutal dictatorship the world keeps ignoring" – via www.washingtonpost.com.
- ^ "UN calls Eritrea a 'totalitarian' state ruled by fear" . Daily Nation. Kenya. 8 June 2015. Retrieved 7 November 2018.
- ^ "Download Limit Exceeded" . citeseerx.ist.psu.edu.
- ^ Whine, Michael (1 September 2001). "Islamism and Totalitarianism: Similarities and Differences". Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions. 2 (2): 54–72. doi:10.1080/714005450 .
- ^ "David Arnett" (PDF). turkishpolicy.com. 2008. Retrieved 2020-02-17.
- ^ a b "The Totalitarian Present - The American Interest" . 1 September 2009.
- ^ a b Gall, Carlotta (30 July 2015). "Mullah Muhammad Omar, Enigmatic Leader of Afghan Taliban, Is Dead" – via NYTimes.com.
- ^ a b "Did you know that there are two different Taliban groups?" . www.digitaljournal.com. 1 April 2013.
- ^ a b "NCTC Home" . www.dni.gov.