Meanings of minor planet names: 14001–15000

As minor planet discoveries are confirmed, they are given a permanent number by the IAU's Minor Planet Center (MPC), and the discoverers can then submit names for them, following the IAU's naming conventions. The list below concerns those minor planets in the specified number-range that have received names, and explains the meanings of those names.

Official naming citations of newly named small Solar System bodies are published in MPC's Minor Planet Circulars several times a year.[1] Recent citations can also be found on the JPL Small-Body Database (SBDB).[2] Until his death in 2016, German astronomer Lutz D. Schmadel compiled these citations into the Dictionary of Minor Planet Names (DMP) and regularly updated the collection.[3][4] Based on Paul Herget's The Names of the Minor Planets,[5] Schmadel also researched the unclear origin of numerous asteroids, most of which had been named prior to World War II.  This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Government document: "SBDB". New namings may only be added after official publication as the preannouncement of names is condemned by the Committee on Small Body Nomenclature.[6]


Named minor planet Provisional This minor planet was named for... Ref · Catalog
14004 Chikama 1993 SK2 Taketo Chikama (born 1961) is a founding member of the Fukuoka Astronomical Society. His greatest pleasure as an amateur astronomer is taking photographs of many kinds of heavenly bodies. His greatest interest is his search for supernovae JPL  · 14004
14006 Sakamotofumio 1993 SA4 Fumio Sakamoto (born 1968) once worked as a planetarium volunteer and during observation meetings of the municipal science museum in Kitakyushu. He currently remains engaged in the spread of astronomy activities for children and local citizens. He is a member of the Fukuoka Astronomical Society JPL  · 14006
14010 Jomonaomori 1993 UL Jōmon is the Japanese Neolithic culture (14,000–300 BC) known for its sophisticated culture and pottery. Jomon remains, such as the Sannai-Maruyama site, are found largely in Aomori Prefecture JPL  · 14010
14012 Amedee 1993 XG Amedee, a small uninhabited island 30 km west of Noumea, New Caledonia. JPL  · 14012
14014 Münchhausen 1994 AL16 Baron Munchausen (1720–1797), German officer and adventurer MPC  · 14014
14015 Senancour 1994 BD4 Etienne Pivert de Senancour (1770–1846), a French essayist and philosopher JPL  · 14015
14016 Steller 1994 BJ4 Georg Wilhelm Steller (1709–1746), German botanist, who accompanied Vitus Bering on the expedition that led to the discovery of southeastern Alaska JPL  · 14016
14019 Pourbus 1994 PP16 Pieter Pourbus (1523–1584) was a Dutch-Flemish Renaissance painter, sculptor and cartographer. Known primarily for his religious and portrait painting, he was also a surveyor and engineer. Name suggested by C. Leterme. JPL  · 14019
14024 Procol Harum 1994 RZ Procol Harum British progressive rock band Img MPC  · 14024
14025 Fallada 1994 RR11 Hans Fallada (1893–1947), German writer MPC  · 14025
14026 Esquerdo 1994 ST7 Gilbert A. Esquerdo (born 1976), American research assistant for the Near-Earth-Asteroid Physical Study project at the University of Western Ontario MPC  · 14026
14028 Nakamurahiroshi 1994 TZ14 Hiroshi Nakamura (born 1955) is a well-known amateur astronomer in Kagawa Prefecture, Japan. JPL  · 14028
14031 Rozyo 1994 WF2 Rozyo Elementary School, the name of a historical school in Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan. JPL  · 14031
14032 Mego 1994 XP Japanese Princess Megohime (1568–1653), also known as Lady Tamura, the wife of Date Masamune; a cherry tree seedling planted near the Sendai Astronomical Observatory is known as the "Princess Mego Cherry Tree". JPL  · 14032
14036 Yasuhirotoyama 1995 EY7 Yasuhiro Toyama (born 1953) is a Japanese electronic engineer. He has developed a number of inexpensive high-performance motor drive control circuits for astronomical telescopes, including the one used for the telescope that discovered this object. JPL  · 14036
14040 Andrejka 1995 QD2 Andrea Galádová (born 1970), familiarly known as Andrejka, wife of the first discoverer. Adrián Galád. It was the first discovered minor planet at Modra Observatory. JPL  · 14040
14041 Dürrenmatt 1995 SO54 Friedrich Dürrenmatt (1921–1990), Swiss author MPC  · 14041
14042 Agafonov 1995 UG5 Konstantin Vasil'evich Agafonov (1935–1997), a well-known organizer of the electronic industry in Russia JPL  · 14042
14046 Keikai 1995 WE5 Keikai mountain (height 294 meters) is located in the north of Nanyo-city, Yamagata prefecture. The Nanyo Citizen Observatory is located there JPL  · 14046
14047 Kohichiro 1995 WG5 Kohichiro Morita (1954–2012), a professor at the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. JPL  · 14047
14054 Dušek 1996 AR Jiří Dušek (born 1971), Czech astronomer the Nicolas Copernicus Observatory and Planetarium in Brno. He is a co-founder of the Czech Internet astronomical newspaper IAN. MPC  · 14054
14056 Kainar 1996 AO1 Josef Kainar (1917–1971), Czech poet, dramatist, journalist and musician MPC  · 14056
14057 Manfredstoll 1996 AV1 Manfred Stoll (born 1938), Austrian astronomical computer specialist from Vienna MPC  · 14057
14060 Patersonewen 1996 BM5 Paterson Ewen (1925–2002), Canadian astronomical artist and teacher MPC  · 14060
14061 Nagincox 1996 CT7 Nagin Cox (born 1965) is a system engineer and a manager on multiple interplanetary robotic NASA missions. JPL  · 14061
14062 Cremaschini 1996 CR8 Claudio Cremaschini (born 1984), an amateur astronomer in Brescia, Italy JPL  · 14062
14065 Flegel 1996 EY5 Mike Flegel (born 1955), amateur astronomer and member of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada MPC  · 14065
14068 Hauserová 1996 HP1 Eva Hauserová (born 1954), Czech writer and journalist MPC  · 14068
14069 Krasheninnikov 1996 HP18 Stepan Krasheninnikov (1711–1755), Russian geographer and anthropologist JPL  · 14069
14071 Gadabird 1996 JK13 Bonnie Bird (born 1947) and Andreas Gada (born 1952), Canadian amateur astronomers MPC  · 14071
14072 Volterra 1996 KN Vito Volterra (1860–1940), Italian mathematician and physicist MPC  · 14072
14074 Riccati 1996 NS The family of Italian mathematicians of Jacopo Francesco Riccati (1676–1754) and his sons Vincenzo (1707–1775), Giordano (1709–1790) and Francesco (1718–1791) wrote principally on differential equations, geometry and the work of Newton. Riccati's differential equation is famous. JPL  · 14074
14075 Kenwill 1996 OJ Kenneth A. Williams (born 1956), of Lake Clear, New York, an American astrometrist, astrophotographer, and discoverer of minor planets JPL  · 14075
14077 Volfango 1996 PF1 Volfango Montanari (born 1931), Italian athlete at the Olympic Games in Helsinki in 1952 JPL  · 14077
14080 Heppenheim 1997 GB The medieval town of Heppenheim, Germany. On a hill above the city the ruins of the Starkenburg castle dominate the picturesque scenery. JPL  · 14080
14088 Ancus 1997 JB10 Ancus Marcius (c. 677–617 BC), fourth king of Rome, reigned from 640 to 616 B.C. JPL  · 14088
14092 Gaily 1997 MC8 T. Dean Gaily (born 1934), Canadian physicist and professor in the physics department at the University of Western Ontario MPC  · 14092
14094 Garneau 1997 OJ1 Marc Garneau (born 1949), the first Canadian in space MPC  · 14094
14097 Capdepera 1997 PU4 Capdepera, a village in eastern Mallorca, Spain JPL  · 14097
14098 Šimek 1997 QS Milos Simek (born 1933), Czech radio astronomer at Ondřejov Observatory JPL  · 14098
14100 Weierstrass 1997 RQ5 Karl Weierstrass (1815–1897), German mathematician MPC  · 14100


back to top

Named minor planet Provisional This minor planet was named for... Ref · Catalog
14103 Manzoni 1997 TC Alessandro Manzoni (1785–1873), an Italian poet and novelist. JPL  · 14103
14104 Delpino 1997 TV Federico Ernesto Delpino (1946–2007), an astronomer at the Bologna Observatory, began his scientific career by studying x-ray and \gamma -ray sources and the microwave cosmic background. He contributed to the creation of the electronic network at the University of Bologna and participated in astronomical popularization. JPL  · 14104
14105 Nakadai 1997 TS17 Tatsuya Nakadai (born 1932), a prominent Japanese actor who has received awards from the Cannes, Venice, and Berlin film festivals JPL  · 14105
14111 Kimamos 1998 QA24 Kim Amos, 2002 DCYSC mentor. She teaches at the Mt. De Chantal Visitation Academy, Wheeling, West Virginia. JPL  · 14111
14114 Randyray 1998 QE35 Randy Ray, 2002 DCYSC mentor. He teaches at the Reyburn Intermediate School, Clovis, California. JPL  · 14114
14115 Melaas 1998 QO36 Kathleen Melaas, 2002 DCYSC mentor. She teaches at the Valley High School, Hoople, North Dakota. JPL  · 14115
14116 Ogea 1998 QC40 Amanda H. Ogea, 2002 DCYSC mentor. She teaches at the Episcopal Day School, Lake Charles, Louisiana. JPL  · 14116
14119 Johnprince 1998 QU46 John E. Prince, 2002 DCYSC mentor. He teaches at the Keystone Junior High School, San Antonio, Texas. JPL  · 14119
14120 Espenak 1998 QJ54 Fred Espenak, American astronomer and compiler of eclipse atlases (ephemerides) MPC  · 14120
14121 Stüwe 1998 QM54 Joachim A. Stüwe (born 1958), of the Astronomisches Institut, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, has catalogued dark clouds and globules in the southern Milky Way and pioneered the development of distance determination algorithms for interstellar clouds based on automatic star counts. JPL  · 14121
14122 Josties 1998 QA55 F. Jerry Josties (born 1937) worked at the U.S. Naval Observatory for more than four decades. He managed USNO's photographic double star program and contributed to VLBI work on the determination of polar motion, earth rotation and nutation. JPL  · 14122
14124 Kamil 1998 QN60 Kamil Hornoch, Czech amateur astronomer MPC  · 14124
14129 Dibucci 1998 QO95 Janet DiBucci, 2002 DCYSC mentor. She teaches at the Brentwood Middle School, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. JPL  · 14129
14134 Penkala 1998 RP42 Brad Penkala, 2002 DCYSC mentor. He teaches at the Goleta Valley Junior High School, Goleta, California. JPL  · 14134
14135 Cynthialang 1998 RZ62 Cynthia Lang, 2002 DCYSC mentor. She teaches at the Independence Home School, Yardley, Pennsylvania. JPL  · 14135
14141 Demeautis 1998 SR1 Christophe Demeautis, an amateur astronomer. JPL  · 14141
14143 Hadfield 1998 SQ18 Chris Hadfield (born 1959) was selected as a Canadian astronaut in 1992, flew on space shuttle missions STS-74 and STS-100. JPL  · 14143
14145 Sciam 1998 SE24 Scientific American, founded in 1845, is the oldest continuously published magazine in North America. JPL  · 14145
14146 Hughmaclean 1998 SP42 Hugh Noel Alexander Maclean (born 1915) is an amateur astronomer in St. Catharines, Ontario, who helped found the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada, Niagara Centre, in 1960, and was president of the Niagara Centre during 1966–1968 and 1978–1979. He was employed as a shipping foreman. JPL  · 14146
14147 Wenlingshuguang 1998 SG43 Wenlingshuguang is the event of the first sunlight (Shuguang in Chinese) of the new millennium shining on Wenling, Zhejiang, the first geographical point on China's mainland. JPL  · 14147
14148 Jimchamberlin 1998 SO45 Jim Chamberlin (1915–1981) a Canadian aerodynamicist who worked on Avro Aircraft's Jetliner and Arrow projects, then moved to NASA and was involved with the Mercury, Gemini and Apollo space programs. JPL  · 14148
14149 Yakowitz 1998 SF61 Sidney Yakowitz (1937–1999), a professor in the systems and industrial engineering department of the University of Arizona from 1966 to 1999. JPL  · 14149
14153 Dianecaplain 1998 SA80 Diane S. Caplain, 2002 DCYSC mentor. She teaches at the Great Neck South Middle School, Great Neck, New York. JPL  · 14153
14154 Negrelli 1998 SZ106 David Negrelli, 2002 DCYSC mentor. He teaches at the Paul W. Bell Middle School, Miami, Florida. JPL  · 14154
14155 Cibronen 1998 SK122 Cindy Bronen, 2002 DCYSC mentor. She teaches at the Andrew W. Mellon Middle School, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. JPL  · 14155
14157 Pamelasobey 1998 SA133 Pamela Sobey, 2002 DCYSC mentor. She teaches at the Keystone Junior High School, San Antonio, Texas. JPL  · 14157
14158 Alananderson 1998 SZ133 Alan Anderson, 2002 DCYSC mentor. He teaches at the C.W. Ruckel Middle School, Niceville, Florida. JPL  · 14158
14163 Johnchapman 1998 TY20 John Herbert Chapman, "Father of the Canadian Space Program" MPC  · 14163
14164 Hennigar 1998 TH29 Donald M. Hennigar (1887–1951) was a Canadian amateur telescope maker and active member of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada, London Centre. He served as vice president of the London Centre during 1936–1938. He was staff architect with the London Life Insurance Company. JPL  · 14164
14172 Amanolivere 1998 VN8 Amanda Olivere, 2002 DCYSC mentor. She teaches at the Engle Middle School, West Grove, Pennsylvania. JPL  · 14172
14174 Deborahsmall 1998 VO13 Deborah Small, 2002 DCYSC mentor. She teaches at the George Washington Carver Middle School, Miami, Florida. JPL  · 14174
14179 Skinner 1998 VM32 Christopher J. Skinner (1963–1997), teacher of British astronomer Ian P. Griffin, the discoverer of this minor planet. JPL  · 14179
14181 Koromházi 1998 WX6 Beáta Koromházi is the mother of Czech astronomer Krisztián Sárneczky, a co-discoverer of this minor planet. MPC  · 14181
14182 Alley 1998 WG12 Karen Alley, 2002 DCYSC mentor. She teaches at the East Middle School, Butte, Montana. JPL  · 14182
14185 Van Ness 1998 WK32 Michael E. Van Ness (born 1974), an observer for LONEOS since 1998. JPL  · 14185
14186 Virgiliofos 1998 XP2 Virgilio Fossombroni (born 1946), a teacher of Italian Literature, developed a keen interest in science in general and taught the first rudiments of astronomy to the first discoverer when he was a little boy. JPL  · 14186
14189 Sèvre 1998 XB14 François Sèvre (born 1948) a French astronomer who started his career as an infrared astronomy engineer at Meudon Observatory. He has participated in a large number of observing runs, most notably at the Pic du Midi Observatory, where his knowledge of the mountain and his human qualities have always been appreciated. JPL  · 14189
14190 Soldán 1998 XS15 Jan Soldán (born 1957) is a Czech astronomer, designer and developer of control software and programs for space and ground-based experiments, including CCD cameras, robotic telescopes and real-time image processing. Since 1996 he has taken part in the INTEGRAL satellite project. JPL  · 14190


back to top

Named minor planet Provisional This minor planet was named for... Ref · Catalog
14203 Hocking 1998 YT20 Wayne Keith Hocking (born 1955), a Canadian physicist who has studied atmospheric and radar physics and constructed radar systems. He joined the faculty at the University of Western Ontario in 1991. JPL  · 14203
14206 Sehnal 1999 CL10 Ladislav Sehnal (born 1931), a Czech astronomer who is known for his work on the effects of solar radiation and atmospheric drag on the motions of artificial satellites and the theory of space accelerometric measurements. He served as director of the Astronomical Institute of the Czech Academy of Sciences during 1990–1996. JPL  · 14206
14214 Hirsch 1999 RP86 Theresa Hirsch, 2002 DYSC mentor. She teaches at the St. John the Baptist School, New Brighton, Minnesota JPL  · 14214
14217 Oaxaca 1999 VV19 Oaxaca, City and State in Mexico, birthplace of Benito Juárez, first native-born president of Mexico, first numbered asteroid discovered from Mexico (updated by the discoverer) MPC  · 14217
14220 Alexgibbs 1999 VE115 Alex Gibbs (born 1967), an observer and software engineer with the Catalina Sky Survey. JPL  · 14220
14223 Dolby 1999 XW1 John Dolby (born 1961) was a telescope operator at the University of New Mexico's Capilla Peak Observatory during 1988–1989. Since 1995 he has provided consultation and technical assistance to the astronomical and biomedical communities about CCD imaging systems JPL  · 14223
14224 Gaede 1999 XU33 Allison Gaede, 2001 DYSC mentor. Gaede is a teacher at the Reyburn Intermediate School, Clovis, California JPL  · 14224
14225 Alisahamilton 1999 XZ49 Alisa Hamilton, 2001 DYSC mentor. Hamilton is a teacher at the College Station Middle School, College Station, Texas JPL  · 14225
14226 Hamura 1999 XR50 Jay Hamura, 2001 DYSC mentor. Hamura is a teacher at the St. Andrew's Priory, Honolulu, Hawaii JPL  · 14226
14230 Mariahines 1999 XF100 Maria L. Hines, 2001 DYSC mentor. Hines is a teacher at the Orchard Day Home School, Ft. Wayne, Indiana. JPL  · 14230
14232 Curtismiller 1999 XJ120 Curtis Miller (born 1988) is a Guidance, Navigation and Control engineer for Lockheed Martin working on Natural Feature Tracking for the OSIRIS-REx Asteroid Sample Return Mission. Prior to this role, he worked as a GN&C operations engineer. JPL  · 14232
14234 Davidhoover 1999 XZ182 David L. Hoover, 2001 DYSC mentor. Hoover is a teacher at the Middletown Middle School, Middletown, Maryland JPL  · 14234
14238 d'Artagnan 1999 YX13 d'Artagnan, one of the Three Musketeers MPC  · 14238
14244 Labnow 2000 AT29 Science teacher (MCMS) /scientist[7] MPC  · 14244
14250 Kathleenmartin 2000 AJ63 Kathleen B. Martin, 2001 DYSC mentor. Martin is a teacher at the Doolen Middle School, Tucson, Arizona JPL  · 14250
14252 Audreymeyer 2000 AD64 Audrey W. Meyer, 2001 DYSC mentor. Meyer is a teacher at the Falmouth Academy, Falmouth, Massachusetts JPL  · 14252
14258 Katrinaminck 2000 AM116 Katrina D. Minck, 2001 DYSC mentor. Minck is a teacher at the Manhattan Beach Middle School, Manhattan Beach, California JPL  · 14258
14262 Kratzer 2000 AC125 Sherri Kratzer, 2002 DYSC mentor. She teaches at the Great Valley Middle School, Malvern, Pennsylvania JPL  · 14262
14267 Zook 2000 AJ153 Herbert A. ("Herb") Zook (1932–2001) was a planetary scientist who advanced the understanding of the interplanetary dust complex by his studies at the NASA Johnson Space Center of meteoroid orbital evolution, collisions, resonant orbit interactions, radiation pressure and electromagnetic effects JPL  · 14267
14274 Landstreet 2000 BL21 John Darlington Landstreet (born 1940), a Canadian astronomer at the University of Western Ontario. He helped discover magnetic fields in white dwarf stars and developed Balmer-line polarimetry for detection of magnetic fields in middle-main sequence stars. JPL  · 14274
14275 Dianemurray 2000 BR26 Diane K. Murray, 2001 DYSC mentor. Murray is a teacher at the J. F. Kennedy Elementary School, Butte, Montana. JPL  · 14275
14277 Parsa 2000 CS13 Steve Parsa, 2001 DYSC mentor. Parsa is a teacher at the Palos Verdes Intermediate School, Palos Verdes, California JPL  · 14277
14278 Perrenot 2000 CV29 Valerie T. Perrenot, 2001 DYSC mentor. Perrenot is a teacher at the Barbara Bush Middle School, San Antonio, Texas JPL  · 14278
14282 Cruijff 2097 P-L Johan Cruijff (1947–2016) was a legendary Dutch football player who also became successful as a football coach in the Netherlands and Spain. His Cruyff Foundation supports sports projects for disabled and disadvantaged children. The name was suggested by Carl Koppeschaar [nl] JPL  · 14282


back to top

Named minor planet Provisional This minor planet was named for... Ref · Catalog
14308 Hardeman 5193 T-3 Sjoerd Hardeman (1982–2011) was a member of the Jongeren WerkGroep voor sterrenkunde (Dutch Youth Association for astronomy). He was a leader on several astronomy holiday camps and gave many presentations on astronomy. He died from leukemia shortly before defending his PhD. JPL  · 14308
14309 Defoy A908 SA Ilse Defoy (1892–1947), wife of Christoph Schubart and mother of Heidelberg astronomer Joachim Schubart JPL  · 14309
14310 Shuttleworth 1966 PP Mark Shuttleworth, South African businessman, first citizen of an African country to venture into space (on a Soyuz mission in 2002) JPL  · 14310
14312 Polytech 1976 UN2 Saint Petersburg State Technical University (former Polytechnical Institute), founded in 1899, is one of the largest universities laying the foundation of higher polytechnic education in Russia. JPL  · 14312
14313 Dodaira 1976 UZ7 Dodaira station was dedicated in 1962 with a 0.91-m reflector and 0.50-m Schmidt telescope as a branch station of the Tokyo Astronomical Observatory in Saitama prefecture, and its operation was terminated in Mar. 2000. It was located where the borders of Tokigawa, Ogawamachi and Higashichichibu meet. MPC  · 14313
14314 Tokigawa 1977 DQ3 Tokigawa, a village east of the Chichibu mountain range in Saitama prefecture, north of Tokyo, near where Dodaira station was located. JPL  · 14314
14315 Ogawamachi 1977 EL5 Ogawamachi, a town at the eastern edge of Chichibu mountain range in Saitama prefecture. JPL  · 14315
14316 Higashichichibu 1977 ES7 Higashichichibu, a village of 4000 at the eastern edge of the Chichibu mountain range in Saitama prefecture. JPL  · 14316
14317 Antonov 1978 PC3 Oleg Konstantinovich Antonov (1906–1984) worked in Kiev beginning in 1952 and was the founder of a national scientific and technical school of aircraft building. He made many types of gliders, passenger and transport aircraft distinguished by the latest features and discoveries. He was also a talented poet and artist. JPL  · 14317
14318 Buzinov 1978 SD3 Victor Mikhajlovich Buzinov (1934–2006) was a Russian journalist and author from St. Petersburg. About three thousand of his Radio walks through the city won the recognition of citizens and promoted their civic consciousness. He wrote several books on the history of St. Petersburg that were awarded prestigious prizes. JPL  · 14318
14322 Shakura 1978 YM Nikolai Ivanovich Shakura, Russian astrophysicist JPL  · 14322
14327 Lemke 1980 FE2 Dietrich Lemke (born 1939), a German astronomer who is the principal investigator of the ISOPHOT instrument on board ESA's Infrared Space Observatory, has encouraged the study of minor planets in the thermal infrared, resulting in their being established as a new class of far-infrared/submillimeter calibrators. JPL  · 14327
14328 Granvik 1980 VH Mikael Granvik (born 1977), a researcher at the University of Helsinki and senior research scientist, Finnish Geodetic Institute. JPL  · 14328
14335 Alexosipov 1981 RR3 Alexandr Kuzmich Osipov (1920–2004) was a Ukrainian astronomer at the Astronomical Observatory of Kyiv National University. He was a talented teacher of many generations of students. His interests were wide-ranging, from observations of artificial satellites to studies of the motion and the figure of the moon, planets and comets. JPL  · 14335
14338 Shibakoukan 1982 VP3 Shiba Koukan (1747–1818) was a western-style painter in the late Edo period JPL  · 14338
14339 Knorre 1983 GU Ernest Khristov Knorre (1759–1810) was the first astronomer at Tartu University. His son Karl Khristov Knorre (1801–1883) was the first director of the naval Nikolaev Observatory. Victor Karlovich Knorre (1840–1919) worked in Nikolaev, Pulkovo and Berlin and discovered (158) Koronis and three other minor planets JPL  · 14339
14342 Iglika 1984 SL Iglika Manchev (born 1992), the guiding star of her father Christo, a good friend of the discoverers. JPL  · 14342
14345 Gritsevich 1985 PO Maria Gritsevich (born 1977), a research scientist at the Finnish Geodetic Institute. JPL  · 14345
14346 Zhilyaev 1985 QG5 Boris Efimovich Zhilyaev (born 1940) is a Ukrainian astronomer and chief of the high-speed photometry group at the main astronomical observatory of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. He has organized an international network of synchronized HSPh telescopes to detect microsecond stellar variations at a level down to 0.001 magnitude. JPL  · 14346
14348 Cumming 1985 UO3 Robert Cumming (born 1967), an astronomer at Onsala Space Observatory. JPL  · 14348
14349 Nikitamikhalkov 1985 UQ4 Nikita Sergeevich Mikhalkov (born 1945), Russian film director and has also acted in more than 40 films. He received awards from Cannes and Venice, and won an Oscar for the Best Foreign Film, Burnt by the Sun (1994). Since December 1997, he has been chairman of the Cinematographers' Union of Russia. JPL  · 14349
14351 Tomaskohout 1986 RF3 Tomas Kohout (born 1980), a postdoctoral researcher at the University of Helsinki. JPL  · 14351
14354 Kolesnikov 1987 QX7 Evgeny Kolesnikov, Russian scientist who has conducted research at the Tunguska impact site JPL  · 14354
14360 Ipatov 1988 CV4 Sergej Ivanovich Ipatov (born 1952) is a Russian scientist and specialist in the migration of minor planets. During his stay in 1999 at the Uccle Observatory, he was shown to be a very fine observer who made several discoveries with the Uccle Schmidt telescope. JPL  · 14360
14361 Boscovich 1988 DE Ruggiero Giuseppe Boscovich (1711–1787), Jesuit professor of mathematics and philosophy at Rome and Pavia. JPL MPC  · 14361
14365 Jeanpaul 1988 RZ2 Jean Paul (Friedrich Richter, 1763–1825), a German writer and poet. JPL  · 14365
14366 Wilhelmraabe 1988 RX3 Wilhelm Raabe (Jacob Corvinus, 1831–1910), The Lower-Saxon novelist and poet. JPL  · 14366
14367 Hippokrates 1988 RY3 Hippokrates (460?-375 B.C.), a Greek physician. JPL  · 14367
14372 Paulgerhardt 1989 AD6 Paul Gerhardt (1607–1676), a German poet and theologian. JPL  · 14372
14382 Woszczyk 1990 ES6 Andrzej Woszczyk (1935–2011), was a Polish astronomer, professor of astrophysics and chair of astronomy and astrophysics of the Torun Center for Astronomy at the Nicolaus Copernicus University. JPL  · 14382
14395 Tommorgan 1990 TN3 Thomas H. Morgan, a U.S. planetary scientist. JPL  · 14395
14400 Baudot 1990 WO4 Jean-Maurice-Emile Baudot (1845–1903) invented a telegraphic code in 1874 that encoded each letter of the alphabet as a series of "on-or-off" signals. Because each signal has the same duration, this system is more efficient than Morse code, and it still used in telecommunications today. JPL  · 14400


back to top

Named minor planet Provisional This minor planet was named for... Ref · Catalog
14401 Reikoyukawa 1990 XV Reiko Yukawa (born 1936) is a Japanese music critic, songwriter and translator. She is known for her work as a jazz critic for "Swing Journal" and as a radio disc jockey. JPL  · 14401
14403 de Machault 1991 GM8 Guillaume de Machault (c. 1300–1377), a medieval poet and one of the last poet-musicians. JPL  · 14403
14411 Clérambault 1991 RE2 Louis-Nicolas Clérambault (1676–1749), a composer of music for organ and harpsichord, was organist at several places in Paris. The uncontested master of the French cantata, he is particularly well known for his sonatas for violin and basso continuo JPL  · 14411
14412 Wolflojewski 1991 RU2 Wolf von Lojewski, a prominent journalist, book author and long-standing correspondent of the German TV system ZDF in Europe and abroad. JPL  · 14412
14413 Geiger 1991 RT3 Hans Geiger, German physicist. JPL  · 14413
14420 Massey 1991 SM Steven (Steve) Massey (born 1962), a pioneer in the use of modern video cameras in astronomical imaging. JPL  · 14420
14424 Laval 1991 SR3 Université Laval, Québec, Canada, oldest university of North America MPC  · 14424
14425 Fujimimachi 1991 TJ2 Fujimimachi is a health resort town in central Japan known for its beautiful scenery and clean air. Mt. Nyukasa station, where this minor planet was discovered, is located in this town. JPL  · 14425
14426 Katotsuyoshi 1991 UO2 Tsuyoshi Kato (born 1968) is one of the leading amateur astronomers in Saitama prefecture. JPL  · 14426
14428 Lazaridis 1991 VM12 Mike Lazaridis, Canadian entrepreneur and founder of the Perimeter Institute MPC  · 14428
14429 Coyne 1991 XC George Coyne (born 1933), S.J., an astronomer at the Vatican Observatory since 1969. JPL  · 14429
14436 Morishita 1992 FC2 After Yoko Morishita (born 1947) retired from the medical field in 2007, she decided to nurture her interest in astronomy. She is an enthusiastic supporter of activities at the Astronomical Society of Shikoku, making many contributions there to furthering the spread of astronomical awareness. JPL  · 14436
14438 MacLean 1992 HC2 Steven Glenwood MacLean (born 1954), selected as a Canadian astronaut in 1983, is an expert in laser physics and space vision systems. He flew on space shuttle mission STS-52. JPL  · 14438
14439 Evermeersch 1992 RE2 Etienne Vermeersch (born 1934), a Belgian philosopher and professor. JPL  · 14439
14441 Atakanoseki 1992 SJ Atakanoseki, a checkpoint set up in Komatsu-city, Ishikawa Prefecture, in 1187. In the 400-year-old Kabuki play "Kanjincho"', two historical figures (Minamotono Yoshitsune, a great warrior, and Benkei, a brave monk) went through Atakanoseki in disguise to the northeastern part of Japan. JPL  · 14441
14443 Sekinenomatsu 1992 TV Recognized as a special natural treasure that is estimated to be over 370 years old, the six-meter-high pine tree of Sekine is located in the San-nohe town, Aomori prefecture. JPL  · 14443
14445 Koichi 1992 UZ3 Koichi Nishimura (born 1943) is the chairman of the telescope manufacturing company that bears his name. Nishimura began manufacturing reflecting telescopes in 1926. Since then, their telescopes have been installed in science museums and astronomical observatories throughout Japan. JPL  · 14445
14446 Kinkowan 1992 UP6 Kinkowan (Kagoshima Bay) in Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan. Mount Sakurajima, a famous active volcano, is in the centre of Kinkowan MPC  · 14446
14447 Hosakakanai 1992 VL Kanai Hosaka (1896–1937) was a Japanese astronomer. In 1910, he showed his drawing of 1P/Halley to Kenji Miyazawa (1896–1933) with the words, "The comet was like a night train going along the Milky Way". This probably inspired Kenji's best-known story "Night on the Galactic Railroad.". JPL  · 14447
14449 Myogizinzya 1992 WE1 Myogizinzya is a historic Shinto shrine built in 537 on the main peak of Myogi Mountain in Gunma prefecture, located in the center of the Japanese archipelago. JPL  · 14449
14463 McCarter 1993 GA1 David Graham McCarter (born 1946), a Canadian amateur astronomer in London, Ontario, is an indefatigable observer and a respected telescope maker who served as president of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada, London Centre, beginning in 2000. JPL  · 14463
14466 Hodge 1993 OY2 Paul W. Hodge (1934–2019), was a professor of astronomy at the University of Washington and, from 1984 to 2004, was editor of the Astronomical Journal. JPL  · 14466
14467 Vranckx 1993 OP3 Rudy Vranckx (born 1959), a historian, has been a conflict journalist in the news department of the Flemish public service broadcaster VRT for more than 25 years. In a career, which included time spent in the Centre for Peace Studies at KU Leuven, he has reported on many conflicts all over the world. JPL  · 14467
14468 Ottostern 1993 OS12 Otto Stern (1888–1969), a German Jewish experimental physicist. JPL  · 14468
14469 Komatsuataka 1993 RK Komatsuataka is a seaside town in Komatsu City, Ishikawa Prefecture. JPL  · 14469
14479 Plekhanov 1994 CQ13 Gennadij Plekhanov (born 1926) is a Russian scientist from Tomsk University who has conducted scientific investigations for 30 years at the Tunguska impact site near Vanavara. In July 1995 the discoverer accompanied him on an excursion to the Tunguska explosion area. JPL  · 14479
14486 Tuscia 1994 TE The ancient name of Tuscany. The central Italian region once inhabited by the Etruscans, and located between the Tyrrhenian Sea and the Arno and Tiber rivers. JPL  · 14486
14487 Sakaisakae 1994 TU2 Sakae Sakai (born 1953) is a well-known amateur astronomer. JPL  · 14487
14491 Hitachiomiya 1994 VY2 Hitachiomiya city, located in the northeast of Kanto district in central Japan, came on the scene in Oct. 2004 through the merger of five towns and villages. The former Miwa village area of Hitachi Omiya city is now the site of the Bistar Astronomical Observatory JPL  · 14491
14492 Bistar 1994 VM6 Bistar is the name of the astronomical observatory at Hanadate Nature Park in Hitachiomiya city, Ibaraki prefecture. Volunteers conduct stargazing parties at the observatory. In addition, the Mt. Hanadate Star Festival has been held there each summer since 1991 JPL  · 14492
14498 Bernini 1995 DO2 Gian Lorenzo Bernini, an Italian architect and sculptor who designed the colonnade of St. Peter's Basilica in Rome. JPL  · 14498
14499 Satotoshio 1995 VR1 Toshio Sato (born 1936), a Japanese amateur astronomer and expert on the modern history of Japanese astronomy. JPL  · 14499
14500 Kibo 1995 WO7 Kibo, a word meaning "hope" or "wish", became a Japanese nickname for the Experiment Module of the International Space Station. JPL  · 14500


back to top

Named minor planet Provisional This minor planet was named for... Ref · Catalog
14501 Tetsuokojima 1995 WA8 Tetsuo Kojima (born 1945) is a Japanese amateur astronomer and an active member of Ota Astronomical Club. JPL  · 14501
14502 Morden 1995 WB22 James C. Morden (1869–1944) was a Canadian historian, educator and author in Stamford Township (now Niagara Falls), Ontario. Morden also had an active local political career as a member of Stamford Township Council, and a public school was named for him in 1952. JPL  · 14502
14504 Tsujimura 1995 YL3 Tamiyuki Tsujimura (1928–1998) was a technical staff member at the observatory of Kyoto University. He devoted himself to the development of the equipment at Ikoma and Ouda Stations JPL  · 14504
14505 Barentine 1996 AW4 John C. Barentine (born 1976) has served as an observing specialist at the Apache Point Observatory 3.5-m telescope and Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Trained in stellar astronomy, he was introduced to planetary work by colleagues Gil Esquerdo and Carol Neese, who suggested this name. JPL  · 14505
14509 Lučenec 1996 ER2 Lučenec is a small historical town, cultural and industrial center of Novohrad in the south of Slovakia, where the first discoverer spent his childhood. It dates from the thirteenth century. During its history it has twice been razed by fire (in 1622 and 1849) JPL  · 14509
14511 Nickel 1996 EU3 Jack Allen "Triple" Nickel (born 1949) joined the Aircraft Operations Division at NASA's Johnson Space Center in 1997. Flying the Shuttle Trainer Aircraft (STA), Nickel helps teach astronauts to land the space shuttle. He is also a keen amateur astronomer and has made a 0.20-m telescope. JPL  · 14511
14513 Alicelindner 1996 GK17 Alice Lindner, German secretary at the Hoher List Observatory JPL  · 14513
14515 Koichisato 1996 HL1 Koichi Sato (born 1960) is a local government employee and amateur astronomer, active in the Nanyo Astronomy Enthusiasts Club since 1984 JPL  · 14515
14517 Monitoma 1996 LJ1 Monika Pravcová (born 1976), sister of the discoverer, and Tomáš Kneslík (born 1977) fell in love in the year of the discovery of this minor planet and married in 2000 when it was numbered JPL  · 14517
14519 Ural 1996 TT38 The Ural river, flowing from the Ural mountains into Kazakhstan and the Caspian Sea; it forms part of the traditional boundary between Europe and Asia JPL  · 14519
14526 Xenocrates 1997 JT3 Xenocrates of Chalcedon (396–314 B.C.), Greek philosopher and mathematician, was a student of Plato and teacher of Epicurus. As head of the Academy (339-314 B.C.) he upheld Plato's policy that geometry and music are prerequisites to the study of philosophy. He wrote on the history of geometry and on number theory. JPL  · 14526
14533 Roy 1997 QY René Roy (born 1938), French amateur astronomer and discoverer of minor planets. He was especially interested in CCD photometry (lightcurves) and astrometry of minor planets and comets. JPL  · 14533
14535 Kazuyukihanda 1997 RF Kazuyuki Handa (born 1926) is a member of the Sakurae Tenmon Doukoukai who popularizes astronomy in Shimane prefecture. He established "Chiisana Shizenkan" (The Small Nature Museum) at Sakurae, where he spreads his message of learning through nature JPL  · 14535
14537 Týn nad Vltavou 1997 RL7 Týn nad Vltavou, a town on the Vltava River in Bohemia, the Czech Republic MPC  · 14537
14539 Clocke Roeland 1997 RU9 Clocke Roeland, the storm bell that is the symbol of the independent spirit of the Belgian (Flemish) city of Ghent MPC  · 14539
14542 Karitskaya 1997 SW9 Eugenia Alexeevna Karitskaya (born 1947) is an astronomer at the Sternberg Astronomical Institute in Moscow and a specialist in the study of x-ray variable stars. Among many accomplishments, she contributed to the compilation of the General Catalogue of Variable Stars JPL  · 14542
14543 Sajigawasuiseki 1997 SF11 Sajigawa-suiseki is a type of special rock found in the Saji River, which runs through Saji Village. Sajigawa-suiseki is popular and well known among Japanese and is favored for use in gardening, as well as in the making of specialty tray servers JPL  · 14543
14544 Ericjones 1997 SG21 Eric M. Jones (born 1944) is an American astrophysicist and space historian. He incorporated the transcripts from the Apollo landings into the landmark web resource "The Apollo Lunar Surface Journal", expanding the transcripts to include annotations by the astronauts, as well as other documentation. JPL  · 14544
14550 Lehký 1997 UU7 Martin Lehký (born 1972) is a Czech amateur astronomer and visual and CCD observer of comets, variable stars and minor planets. He is also interested in observations of occultations of stars by solar-system bodies, eclipses, meteors and astrophotography JPL  · 14550
14551 Itagaki 1997 UN8 Koichi Itagaki (born 1947), a confectionery manufacturing industry president, is also an amateur astronomer in Yamagata. He is credited with the discovery of supernovae 2001bq and 2001gd JPL  · 14551
14555 Shinohara 1997 VQ Tomoe Shinohara (born 1979), a Japanese TV entertainer and designer, whose favorite hobby is astronomical observation and astrophotography. JPL  · 14555
14558 Wangganchang 1997 WG1 Ganchang Wang (1907–1998) was one of the founders of the researches on nuclear physics, cosmic-ray and particle physics in China. He became a member of the Chinese Academy of Sciences in 1955 JPL  · 14558
14564 Heasley 1998 BX13 James N. Heasley (born 1947), an American astronomer who completed his Ph.D. at Yale University in 1973 and studies stellar pulsations and populations at the Institute for Astronomy in Honolulu. JPL  · 14564
14566 Hokule'a 1998 MY7 Hokule'a is the Hawaiian word for the star Arcturus. It is also the name of a double-hulled sailing canoe used to retrace ancient ocean crossings of the ancestral Hawaiians, who navigated using stellar observations JPL  · 14566
14567 Nicovincenti 1998 MQ8 Nicole Vincenti, 2002 DYSC mentor. She teaches at the Fairmont Elementary, Sanger, California JPL  · 14567
14568 Zanotta 1998 OK Mauro Vittorio Zanotta (born 1963), Italian amateur astronomer from Milan, co-discoverer of comet C/1991 Y1 (Zanotta–Brewington) and AAVSO member Src , Src MPC  · 14568
14570 Burkam 1998 QS37 Ann Burkam, 2002 DYSC mentor. She teaches at the Buckeye Valley Middle School, Delaware, Ohio JPL  · 14570
14571 Caralexander 1998 QC45 Carolyn Alexander, 2002 DYSC mentor. She teaches at the Applegate Middle School, Applegate, Oregon JPL  · 14571
14572 Armando 1998 QX54 Armando Blanco (born 1950) is head of the department of physics of University of Lecce. Blanco has studied spectral properties of solar system bodies and interstellar and circumstellar dust grains JPL  · 14572
14573 Montebugnoli 1998 QD55 Stelio Montebugnoli (born 1948) is chief engineer in charge of the Medicina Radiotelescope Station. In Dec. 2001, he successfully collaborated in the first intercontinental planetary radar experiment in Italy, in which echoes were received from (33342) 1998 WT 24 JPL  · 14573
14574 Payette 1998 QR58 Julie Payette, Canadian astronaut MPC  · 14574
14575 Jamesblanc 1998 QC92 James Blanc mentored, 2002 DYSC mentor. He teaches at the Blennerhassett Junior High, Parkersburg, West Virginia JPL  · 14575
14576 Jefholley 1998 QO92 Jeffrey Holley, 2002 DYSC mentor. He teaches at the St. Peter Chanel Interparochial School, Paulina, Louisiana JPL  · 14576
14582 Conlin 1998 RK49 Kimberly Conlin, 2002 DYSC mentor. She teaches at the Rocky Mountain Middle School, Heber, Utah JPL  · 14582
14583 Lester 1998 RN61 Virginia Lester, 2002 DYSC mentor. She teaches at the Austin Academy for Excellence, Garland, Texas JPL  · 14583
14584 Lawson 1998 RH63 Melissa Lawson, 2002 DYSC mentor. She teaches at the Hastings Middle School, Upper Arlington, Ohio JPL  · 14584
14588 Pharrams 1998 RH73 Stacey Pharrams, 2002 Discovery Channel Young Scientist Challenge mentor. She teaches at the Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. MPC  · 14588
14589 Stevenbyrnes 1998 RW79 Steven J. F. Byrnes (born 1984), 2003 Inter STS finalist. He attends the Roxbury Latin School, West Roxbury, Massachusetts. MPC  · 14589
14593 Everett 1998 SA26 Everett Gibson (born 1940), a planetary geochemist at the NASA Johnson Space Center, concentrates on the abundances, distributions and isotopic compositions of the volatile elements in lunar samples and meteorites. He co-led the team that discovered possible relic biogenic activity in the martian meteorite ALH84001 JPL  · 14593
14594 Jindrašilhán 1998 SS26 Jindřich Šilhán (1944–2000) a Czech astronomer who was a major contributor to the development of visual observations in the Czech and Slovak Republics. He observed eclipsing binaries and organized a program to monitor them. His former students are some of the leaders of public observatories. JPL  · 14594
14595 Peaker 1998 SW32 Brian Ronald Peaker (born 1959) is a Canadian competitive rower from London, Ontario, who represented Canada with distinction at numerous international events. Peaker and his crew mates won a silver medal at the 1996 Atlanta Olympics and a gold medal at the 1993 World Championships in the Czech Republic. JPL  · 14595
14596 Bergstralh 1998 SC55 Jay T. Bergstralh (born 1943) is a planetary astronomer whose studies have comprised both spectroscopic observations and modeling of planetary atmospheres. He has served at NASA headquarters, where he contributed significantly to shaping the Discovery planetary exploration program. MPC  · 14596
14597 Waynerichie 1998 SV57 R. Wayne Richie (born 1942) is a NASA engineer who has worked with both human and robotic space exploration. As Discovery program acquisition manager, he helped shape the technical, cost and risk assessment procedures in the selection process for the Discovery planetary exploration program JPL  · 14597
14598 Larrysmith 1998 SU60 Larry W. Smith (born 1952) is a mechanical engineer, firefighter and paramedic who contributed to the fire containment during the 1989 Phillips chemical plant explosion, leading the initial rescue efforts and first recovery team into the structure JPL  · 14598
14600 Gainsbourg 1998 SG73 Serge Gainsbourg (1928–1991) was a songwriter and an iconic figure in French music. His most famous song is Sous le soleil exactement JPL  · 14600


back to top

Named minor planet Provisional This minor planet was named for... Ref · Catalog
14605 Hyeyeonchoi 1998 SD123 Hyeyeon Choi (born 1984), 2003 Inter STS finalist. She attends the Half Hollow Hills High School East, Dix Hills, New York. JPL  · 14605
14606 Hifleischer 1998 SK125 Hilary Caren Fleischer (born 1985), 2003 Inter STS finalist. She attends the South Side High School, Rockville Centre, New York. JPL  · 14606
14611 Elsaadawi 1998 SA148 Nawal El Saadawi (1931), a medical doctor, graduated from the University of Cairo, and writer. JPL  · 14611
14612 Irtish 1998 SG164 Irtish river, flowing from the Mongolian Altay Mountains of China into Kazakhstan and Russia before joining the Ob river JPL  · 14612
14613 Sanchez 1998 TP2 Christian Sanchez is editor-in-chief of the French astronomy magazine Pulsar. A very nice and gentle person, he has worked with very little help to produce over 100 issues of a magazine that always contains much useful information for the amateur astronomer JPL  · 14613
14616 Van Gaal 1998 TK30 Hendrik Van Gaal (1916–1998) was a Belgian priest and the founder of Urania, the public observatory of Antwerp. Van Gall strongly felt that religious institutions should not take a defensive attitude against, but rather encourage, science. The name was suggested by E. Goffin and M. Gyssens. JPL  · 14616
14617 Lasvergnas 1998 UA4 Olivier Las Vergnas (born 1954), French Astronomer, creator of the Association astronomique de Paris en Sorbonne in 1970 and currently president of the French Astronomical Association. MPC  · 14617
14619 Plotkin 1998 UF9 Howard Plotkin (born 1941) is a Canadian historian of science who joined the faculty at the University of Western Ontario and focused on astronomy. JPL  · 14619
14621 Tati 1998 UF18 Jacques Tati (1908–1982), French comic genius, film writer, director and actor, is famous for comedy farces such as Jour De Fête (1946), rich with sound effects but virtually free of dialogue. His brilliant characterization of the quirky Mr. Hulot places him alongside the greats Chaplin and Keaton. JPL  · 14621
14622 Arcadiopoveda 1998 UN18 Arcadio Poveda (born 1930) is a Mexican astronomer and a founder of a number of Mexican scientific institutions. He is best known for his pioneering work on determining the masses of elliptical galaxies JPL  · 14622
14623 Kamoun 1998 UE24 Paul G. D. Kamoun (born 1953) has studied the radar detectability of comets. Using the 12.6-cm wavelength radar at Arecibo, he succeeded in detecting, for the first time, the nuclei of 2P/Encke (in 1980) and 26P/Grigg-Skjellerup (in 1982). The name was suggested by P. Michel JPL  · 14623
14624 Prymachenko 1998 UO24 Maria Avksentyevna Prymachenko (1909–1998) was a prolific Ukrainian artist who mainly expressed herself in the naïve style of painting. She was also an accomplished embroiderer and potter. The name was suggested by K. I. Churyumov JPL  · 14624
14627 Emilkowalski 1998 VA Emil Kowalski (1918–1994) of Syosset, New York, though not a scientist himself, encouraged and fostered the discoverer's childhood interest in observational astronomy and space technology. MPC  · 14627
14631 Benbryan 1998 VS32 Ben H. Bryan (born 1980) is the Lockheed Martin floor lead for the OSIRIS-REx Asteroid Sample Return Mission. He was also the lead manufacturing engineer for the OSIRIS-REx structure, a role he also performed on the Orion heat shield. JPL  · 14631
14632 Flensburg 1998 VY33 Situated at the end of the beautiful firth, Flensburg is the most northern city in Germany. It is a bilingual town at the Danish border and hometown of the discoverer, who lived there for more than 20 years JPL  · 14632
14643 Morata 1998 WZ30 Didier (born 1954) and Stephane (born 1977) Morata observe with a 0.30-m telescope from Martigues, in southern France. They have discovered novae in M31 and minor planets and are now undertaking spectroscopy of Be-type stars. Stephane is studying physics, and Didier is a chemist and editor of the magazine CCD et telescope JPL  · 14643
14654 Rajivgupta 1998 YV16 Rajiv Gupta (born 1958) is a Canadian mathematician who has been a faculty member at the University of British Columbia since 1984. He has edited the Observer's Handbook of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada since 2001 and began a term as president of the Society in 2002. JPL  · 14654
14656 Lijiang 1998 YN22 Lijiang City, in the northwest of Yunnan Province in China, is in the center of the World Natural Heritage "Three Parallel Rivers of Yunnan Protected Areas" and contains the World Cultural Heritage "Old Town of Lijiang" JPL  · 14656
14659 Gregoriana 1999 AF24 The Pontifical Gregorian University dates its origin to the founding of the Roman College in 1551. The name was suggested by Vatican astronomer G. Consolmagno on the occasion of the 64th meeting of Meteoritical Society in Rome in Sept. 2001 JPL  · 14659
14664 Vandervelden 1999 BY25 Erwin Van der Velden (1966–2005), an Australian astrophotographer who was active and valued member of the Brisbane and Southern (Australian) Astronomical Societies. He developed supreme imaging techniques for planetary and deep-sky objects taken by a Digital SLR camera and a Web-Cam. JPL  · 14664
14669 Beletic 1999 DC James William Beletic (born 1956), a physicist. Asteroid awarded by Cyril Cavadore of the European Southern Observatory's Optical Detector Team, which J. Beletic led from 1994 Nov. 1 to 2000 Apr. 27. MPC  · 14669
14674 INAOE 1999 UD5 The Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE) is located in Tonantzitla, Puebla, Mexico, is a prominent Mexican center for research and graduate education in astronomy and astrophysics. It operates several observatories JPL  · 14674
14678 Pinney 1999 XN33 Stacie Pinney, 2001 DYSC mentor. Pinney is a teacher at the Annunciation Catholic Academy, Altamonte, Florida JPL  · 14678
14679 Susanreed 1999 XN42 Susan K. Reed, 2001 DYSC mentor. Reed is a teacher at the Bernalillo Middle School, Bernalillo, New Mexico JPL  · 14679
14681 Estellechurch 1999 XW108 Estelle C. Church (born 1980) is a Lockheed Martin test engineer for the OSIRIS-REx Asteroid Sample Return Mission, focusing on the integration of the guidance system and the asteroid encounter mission phase. She also worked on the Juno and MAVEN missions and as an optics engineer. JPL  · 14681
14682 Davidhirsch 1999 XY110 David Hirsch (born 1973) is the Lockheed Martin Flight Software (FSW) Lead and Certified Principal Engineer (CPE) for the OSIRIS-REx Asteroid Sample Return Mission. He was also the FSW CPE for the MAVEN mission and the FSW Integrator for the Phoenix Mars Lander, MRO, Juno and Genesis missions. JPL  · 14682
14683 Remy 1999 XG156 Jennifer M. Remy, 2001 DYSC mentor. Remy is a teacher at the Springville Middle School, Springville, Utah JPL  · 14683
14684 Reyes 1999 XQ167 Cynthia L. Reyes, 2001 DYSC mentor. Reyes is a teacher at the Seven Springs Middle School, New Port Richey, Florida JPL  · 14684
14693 Selwyn 2000 AH144 Marilyn Selwyn, 2001 DYSC mentor. Selwyn is a teacher at the Tanque Verde Elementary School, Tucson, Arizona JPL  · 14693
14694 Skurat 2000 AR145 Sister Karen Skurat, 2001 DYSC mentor. Skurat is a teacher at the St. Rita School, Hamden, Connecticut JPL  · 14694
14696 Lindawilliams 2000 AW203 Linda H. Williams, 2001 DYSC mentor. Williams is a teacher at the Beech Grove Middle School, Beech Grove, Indiana JPL  · 14696
14697 Ronsawyer 2000 AO214 Ron Sawyer (born 1955) is a Canadian amateur astronomer who is active in the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada, London Centre, and edited the London Centre's newsletter in the late 1970s. He helped organize the Society's General Assemblies in London, Ontario, in 1979 and 2001. JPL  · 14697
14698 Scottyoung 2000 AT230 Scott Douglas Young (born 1971), of the Manitoba Planetarium, was director of the Alice G. Wallace Planetarium in Fitchburg, Massachusetts, during 1996–1999. JPL  · 14698
14699 Klarasmi 2000 AV239 Klara Evgenyevna Smirnova (1936–2003) was a renowned Ukrainian philologist. Head of the English department at Kiev Shevchenko University, she was also an amateur astronomer and obtained several images of comet 1P/Halley during 1985–1986 using the Kiev 0.20-m refractor. The name was suggested by K. I. Churyumov JPL  · 14699
14700 Johnreid 2000 AC240 Geologist John Barlow Reid (born 1940), a teacher for 30 years at Hampshire College, Massachusetts, has studied the earth and moon using isotopic methods. He also developed archeological evidence for slavery migration and the life and health of past populations. The name was suggested by L. A. McFadden and R. Bedell JPL  · 14700


back to top

Named minor planet Provisional This minor planet was named for... Ref · Catalog
14701 Aizu 2000 AO240 Aizu is the westernmost third of Fukushima prefecture, Japan. JPL  · 14701
14702 Benclark 2000 AY242 Benton C. Clark III (born 1937), chief scientist at Space Exploration Systems of Lockheed Martin. JPL  · 14702
14708 Slaven 2000 CU26 Kathy Slaven, 2001 DYSC mentor. Slaven is a teacher at the Beech Grove Middle School, Beech Grove, Indiana. JPL  · 14708
14719 Sobey 2000 CB85 Glen Sobey, 2001 DYSC mentor. Sobey is a teacher at the Keystone Junior High School, San Antonio, Texas. JPL  · 14719
14724 SNO 2000 CA100 The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) MPC  · 14724
14727 Suggs 2000 DU11 Robert Michael Suggs (born 1955) began working for NASA in 1994 and is space environments team lead in the Engineering Directorate at Marshall Space Flight Center. JPL  · 14727
14728 Schuchardt 2000 DY14 Maria Schuchardt (born 1955) is the data manager for the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory Space Imagery Center at the University of Arizona. She is also the LPL photographer and involved in many LPL outreach activities, including support for many NASA spacecraft missions JPL  · 14728
14734 Susanstoker 2000 DZ78 Susan L. Stoker, 2001 DYSC mentor. Stoker is a teacher at the Edgewood Middle School, Moriarty, New Mexico. JPL  · 14734
14739 Edgarchavez 2000 EF21 Edgar Chavez (born 1957) is an engineer who services electron microprobes at research institutions (such as the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory at the University of Arizona) used to analyze a variety of meteorites, terrestrial rocks and manmade materials JPL  · 14739
14741 Teamequinox 2000 EQ49 {\tt e.quinox} is a student-led organization established at Imperial College, London, that won the IEEE's 2010 "Change the World" competition. Their winning project uses their engineering knowledge to provide a sustainable rural electrification system in developing countries in a scalable and economically viable manner JPL  · 14741
14764 Kilauea 7072 P-L Kilauea, the active volcano on Hawaii. JPL  · 14764
14789 GAISH 1969 TY1 GAISh (ГАИШ), Moscow University's Sternberg Astronomical Institute, founded in 1931 on the site of the observatory established by the university in 1831 JPL  · 14789
14790 Beletskij 1970 OF Vladimir Vasil'evich Beletskij (born 1930), a corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Sciences and professor of Moscow University, is a prominent expert in celestial mechanics and spaceflight theory. He developed a nonlinear theory for the rotation and orientation of natural celestial bodies and artificial satellites JPL  · 14790
14791 Atreus 1973 SU Atreus was the son of Pelops, father of Agamemnon and Menelaos and brother of Thyestes JPL  · 14791
14792 Thyestes 1973 SG1 Thyestes was the son of Pelops and brother of Atreus. Atreus killed the children of Thyestes and gave them to Thyestes to eat. Because of this Thyestes cursed the family of Atreus JPL  · 14792
14794 Konetskiy 1976 SD5 Victor Victorovich Konetskiy (1929–2002) was a Russian writer who also became the captain of an ocean-going ship in the Arctic Ocean. He was the author of more than 50 well-known novels, stories and film scripts. JPL  · 14794
14795 Syoyou 1977 EE7 Tubouchi Syoyou (1859–1935) accomplished the first complete translation of Shakespeare's dramas into Japanese. These works inspired the first discoverer to write his book Shakespearean Star Stories JPL  · 14795


back to top

Named minor planet Provisional This minor planet was named for... Ref · Catalog
14812 Rosario 1981 JR1 Rosario, Argentina JPL  · 14812
14814 Gurij 1981 RL2 Gurij Timofeevich Petrovsky (born 1931), director of the Vavilov State Optical Institute and president of the Rozhdestvensky International Optical Society. JPL  · 14814
14815 Rutberg 1981 TH3 Filipp Grigor'evich Rutberg (born 1931), a Russian expert in electrophysics, is director of the Institute of Problems of Electrophysics in St. Petersburg. JPL  · 14815
14818 Mindeli 1982 UF7 Elisbar Mindeli (1910–1980), a noted expert in coal mining, was the director of the Institute of Mountain Mechanics (1973–1980) and a corresponding member of the Georgian Academy of Sciences (1979–1980) JPL  · 14818
14819 Nikolaylaverov 1982 UC11 Nikolay Pavlovich Laverov (born 1930), vice-president of the Russian Academy of Sciences, is an outstanding scientist, author of classical works in uranium geology and geochemistry, radiogeoecology, new energy sources and environmental protection JPL  · 14819
14820 Aizuyaichi 1982 VF4 Aizu Yaichi (1881–1956), a student of Japanese classical literature and a poet of Japanese 31-syllable poems. He greatly admired the poet Ryokan. JPL  · 14820
14821 Motaeno 1982 VG4 Motaeno-Minato was the old name of Tamashima Port, Okayama Prefecture, in the Edo period. JPL  · 14821
14825 Fieber-Beyer 1985 RQ Sherry K. Fieber-Beyer (born 1975), a post-doctoral researcher and director of undergraduate studies at the Department of Space Studies, University of North Dakota. JPL  · 14825
14826 Nicollier 1985 SC1 Claude Nicollier (born 1944), the first European mission specialist of NASA. JPL  · 14826
14827 Hypnos 1986 JK Hypnos, the Greek god of sleep and twin brother of death. He entered the sleep of mortals and gave them, at the bidding of the Olympians, dreams of foolishness or inspiration, depending on the individual and their divine protectors or enemies. JPL  · 14827
14829 Povalyaeva 1986 TR11 Marina Petrovna Povalyaeva (born 1956) is head of the program "Telephone communication for invalids" and organizer of charitable help to the children's branch of the central clinical hospital of the Simferopol area in Ukraine. She was decorated with the Order of Saint Peter and Paul and Order "For patriotism". JPL  · 14829
14831 Gentileschi 1987 BS1 Artemisia Gentileschi (1593–1652), an Italian painter, the only daughter of the Italian painter Orazio Gentileschi. JPL  · 14831
14832 Alechinsky 1987 QC3 Pierre Alechinsky, a Belgian painter. JPL  · 14832
14833 Vilenius 1987 SP1 Esa Vilenius (born 1974), a postdoctoral researcher at the Max Planck Institut f{ü}r extraterrestrische Physik in Garching, Germany. JPL  · 14833
14834 Isaev 1987 SR17 Aleksej Mikhajlovich Isaev (1908–1971), the general designer and a laureate of many awards, was involved in the construction of liquid-propellant engines for many spacecraft, space apparatus and orbital stations. JPL  · 14834
14835 Holdridge 1987 WF1 Mark E. Holdridge (born 1960), an operations manager at the Applied Physics Laboratory of Johns Hopkins University. JPL  · 14835
14836 Maxfrisch 1988 CY Max Frisch (1911–1991), Swiss writer and playwright. JPL  · 14836
14843 Tanna 1988 VP3 Tanna, the name of a railroad tunnel on the Tokaido main line, Japan, that runs for 7804 meters between Atami and Kannami JPL  · 14843
14845 Hegel 1988 VS6 Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, German philosopher. JPL  · 14845
14846 Lampedusa 1989 BH Italian writer Giuseppe Tomasi di Lampedusa (1896–1957) is famous for Il Gattopardo, whose fictional protagonist, Prince Fabrizio Salina, modeled on the author's own grandfather, was an amateur astronomer who discovered and named minor planets "Salina" in honor of his family and "Svelto" in memory of his favorite dog. JPL  · 14846
14850 Nagashimacho 1989 QH Nagashimacho, a town located in the northwestern part of Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan. JPL MPC  · 14850
14853 Shimokawa 1989 SX Yoji Shimokawa (born 1956) is a Japanese amateur astronomer. His major astronomical interest is the photography of nebula and star clusters, and he is active in organizing local star parties for amateur astronomers. JPL  · 14853
14871 Pyramus 1990 TH7 In classic literature, Pyramus and Thisbe are two lovers whose union is prevented by their opposing parents and whose lives end in a tragic double suicide. The two lovers are now finally united forever in the minor-planet belt. JPL  · 14871
14872 Hoher List 1990 UR The Observatory of Hoher List, in the Ardennes near Daun (Eifel), was established in 1957 by the University of Bonn. JPL  · 14872
14873 Shoyo 1990 UQ2 Shoyo Senior High School in Takasago has departments in home economics, commercial studies and general education. Shoyo means the evergreen pine tree and the glorious sun. To be spirited, progressive, autonomous and cooperative is the motto of this comprehensive school, of which the second discoverer is a graduate. JPL  · 14873
14876 Dampier 1990 WD2 William Dampier, sailor and the first to circumnavigate the Earth three times. JPL  · 14876
14877 Zauberflöte 1990 WC9 Die Zauberflöte (The Magic Flute), opera by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (named on the occasion of the 250th anniversary of Mozart's birth) JPL  · 14877
14880 Moa 1991 CJ1 A giant flightless bird of New Zealand thought to have become extinct by A.D. 1400, MOA is also the acronym of the project Microlensing Observations in Astrophysics which involves New Zealand and Japanese universities. JPL  · 14880
14885 Paskoff 1991 RF2 Marie-Claude Paskoff, chief editor of the astronomical journal L'Astronomie, founded by Flammarion in 1882. JPL  · 14885
14888 Kanazawashi 1991 SN1 Kanazawa ("Little Kyoto"), Ishikawa prefecture, Japan JPL  · 14888


back to top

Named minor planet Provisional This minor planet was named for... Ref · Catalog
14901 Hidatakayama 1992 SH Hida Takayama city is located in the north of the Hida Mountains in the heart of Japan. JPL  · 14901
14902 Miyairi 1993 BE2 Keinosuke Miyairi (1865–1946), of Kyushu Imperial University, a pioneer in epidemiology, discovered that the snail now called "Miyairi-gai" is an intermediate host for transmission of shistosoma japonicum infection. This enabled schistosomiasis to be controlled. JPL  · 14902
14909 Kamchatka 1993 PY3 Kamchatka Peninsula JPL  · 14909
14911 Fukamatsu 1993 RH2 Daihei Fukamatsu (born 1956) is a Japanese amateur astronomer with a strong interest in the development of astronomical teaching materials. He has carried out orbital calculations for comets since joining the Fukuoka Astronomical Society in 1978. JPL  · 14911
14914 Moreux 1993 TM26 Théophile Moreux (1867–1954), commonly known as "Abbé Moreux", was a French astronomer and meteorologist. JPL  · 14914
14917 Taco 1994 AD11 Kenneth Dale "Taco" Cockrell (born 1950), an engineer and pilot with NASA from 1987 to 1990, was then selected as an astronaut and flew on space shuttle missions STS-56, STS-69, STS-80, STS-98 and STS-111. JPL  · 14917
14919 Robertohaver 1994 PG Roberto Haver (born 1961) is an Italian amateur astronomer who has been actively involved in observing and studying comets and meteors for more than 20 years. He planned a search for comet 109P/Swift-Tuttle in 1992 with the Schmidt telescope at Cima Ekar and later found prerecovery images. JPL  · 14919
14922 Ohyama 1994 TA3 Tetsuya Ohyama (born 1959) is a Japanese amateur astronomer skilled in the making of his own personal observatories. JPL  · 14922
14925 Naoko 1994 VU2 Yamazaki (Sumino) Naoko, Japanese astronaut JPL  · 14925
14926 Hoshide 1994 VB3 Hoshide Akihiko, Japanese astronaut JPL  · 14926
14927 Satoshi 1994 VW6 Furukawa Satoshi, Japanese astronaut JPL  · 14927
14937 Thirsk 1995 CP3 Robert Brent Thirsk, Canadian astronaut MPC  · 14937
14939 Norikura 1995 DG1 Mount Norikura (3026 m high), part of the northern Japan Alps, is an extinct volcano, located at the boundary of Nagano and Gifu prefectures. JPL  · 14939
14940 Freiligrath 1995 EL8 Ferdinand Freiligrath (1810–1876), a German poet who pleaded in his poetry for democratic and social reforms and for liberty. Because he yearned for a national uprising, he was shadowed at times. At the end of his life, in Bismarck's time, he became a patriotic poet. JPL  · 14940
14941 Tomswift 1995 FY2 Tom Swift and Tom Swift, Junior, were fictional father-and-son geniuses whose scientific adventures, in successive series of novels, inspired generations of young readers throughout the twentieth century to pursue science. JPL  · 14941
14942 Stevebaker 1995 MA Steve Baker (born 1967), a key member of the Air Force Maui Optical and Supercomputing (AMOS) team. JPL  · 14942
14947 Luigibussolino 1996 AB4 Luigi Bussolino, Italian aerospace engineer. JPL  · 14947
14948 Bartuška 1996 BA Josef Bartuška (1898–1963) was a Czech avant-garde poet, painter, graphic artist, photographer and teacher. He also experimented with photograms and collages. In the inter-war period he belonged to the most significant artists of the South Bohemian art group, Linie JPL  · 14948
14953 Bevilacqua 1996 CB3 Franco Bevilacqua (born 1937) is an Italian space engineer. JPL  · 14953
14959 TRIUMF 1996 JT3 The Tri-University Meson Facility (TRIUMF) MPC  · 14959
14960 Yule 1996 KO George Udny Yule (1871–1951), statistician, lecturer at University College, London, and fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge. JPL  · 14960
14961 d'Auteroche 1996 LV3 Jean-Baptiste Chappe d'Auteroche (1722–1769), a French astronomer who dedicated his life to observational astronomy. He observed the 1761 transit of Venus from Tobolsk and later published his Voyage en Siberie. In 1769, he went to observe the next transit in Baja California and perished in an epidemic shortly after making his observations. JPL  · 14961
14962 Masanoriabe 1996 TL15 Masanori Abe (born 1958) became a member of the Nanyo Astronomical Lovers Club in 1987 and actively popularizes astronomy JPL  · 14962
14963 Toshikazu 1996 TM15 Toshikazu Kanno (born 1959), a science teacher in junior high-school, has been a member of the Nanyo Astronomical Lovers Club since 1987 and actively popularizes astronomy JPL  · 14963
14964 Robertobacci 1996 VS Roberto Bacci (born 1965), an active Italian amateur astronomer since his adolescence, has turned his primary interest to variable stars and meteors. JPL  · 14964
14965 Bonk 1997 KC Werner Bonk (born 1923) is a German engineer and amateur astronomer who has measured several hundred positions of minor planets. He introduced the discoverer to astrometry and provided him with assistance and encouragement for many years. MPC  · 14965
14966 Jurijvega 1997 OU2 Jurij Vega, Slovenian mathematician and military engineer, on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of the Jurij Vega Grammar School in Idrija, which the discoverer attended MPC  · 14966
14967 Madrid 1997 PF4 Madrid, capital city of Spain, is the birthplace and hometown of the second discoverer, Rafael Pacheco. JPL  · 14967
14968 Kubáček 1997 QG Dalibor Kubácek (born 1957) worked at the Slovak Academy of Sciences in Bratislava, where he studied the structure of cometary comae by means of image processing. He willingly taught students and friends (including the discoverers) and helped to explain to them this relatively unknown procedure. JPL  · 14968
14969 Willacather 1997 QC1 Willa Cather (1873–1947) was an American novelist and Pulitzer Prize-winner. Born in Virginia, she moved to Nebraska in 1883. Her early life on the prairie and sympathy for the immigrant pioneer influenced her mature years and shows in her best-known novels, My Antonia and Death Comes for the Archbishop. JPL  · 14969
14972 Olihainaut 1997 QP3 Olivier R. Hainaut (born 1966) is a Belgian astronomer and discoverer of minor planets who is a specialist on distant comets and trans-Neptunian objects. An active observer and recoverer of several comets, he now heads the New Technology Telescope of the European Southern Observatory in La Silla. JPL  · 14972
14973 Rossirosina 1997 RZ Rosina Rossi (born 1934), mother of the Italian discoverer Andrea Boattini MPC  · 14973
14974 Počátky 1997 SK1 Počátky, a town in south Bohemia, the Czech Republic, where the discoverer Miloš Tichý was born MPC  · 14974
14975 Serasin 1997 SA3 Antonietta Serasin (born 1957) is an Italian amateur astronomer who lives in Padua. MPC  · 14975
14976 Josefčapek 1997 SD4 Josef Čapek (1887–1945), was a Czech artist with wide interests, including painting, graphic arts and writing, authoring stories for children and coauthoring dramas together with his brother Karel. Part of his art was influenced by the growing threat posed by the fascists to Czechoslovakia in the 1930s. JPL  · 14976
14977 Bressler 1997 SE4 Martin Bressler (1912–2009), was an Austrian amateur astronomer who started his astrometric program on minor planets in 1982. Always eager to learn new techniques, he enthusiastically switched from photographic emulsions to a CCD in 1993. JPL  · 14977
14980 Gustavbrom 1997 TW9 Gustav Brom (Gustav Frkal), Czech 20th-century jazz musician, conductor, composer and singer JPL  · 14980
14981 Uenoiwakura 1997 TY17 Iwakura High School was established in 1897 as a private railroad high school in Ueno. JPL  · 14981
14988 Tryggvason 1997 UA7 Bjarni Tryggvason, Icelandic-Canadian astronaut MPC  · 14988
14989 Tutte 1997 UB7 William Tutte, Canadian mathematician MPC  · 14989
14990 Zermelo 1997 UY10 Ernst F. F. Zermelo (1871–1953), German mathematician. JPL  · 14990
14994 Uppenkamp 1997 UW18 Wolfgang Uppenkamp (born 1953) a German teacher of English and German literature at the Pascal-Gymnasium in Grevenbroich, North-Rhine Westphalia. He uses innovative media to inspire his students. JPL  · 14994
14995 Archytas 1997 VY1 Archytas (ca. 428-365 B.C.), a philosopher and mathematician of the Pythagorean school. MPC  · 14995
14998 Ogosemachi 1997 VU6 Ogosemachi is a Japanese town in the center of Saitama Prefecture. It is famous for Kuroyama-santaki, three waterfalls in the Prefectural Kuroyama Nature Park, and Echigo Ume Grove, one of the three famous ume groves in the Kanto district. JPL  · 14998
15000 CCD 1997 WZ16 A charge-coupled device (CCD) is a two-dimensional array of light-sensitive microelectronic semiconductor capacitors. It is used as an imaging detector. With its high sensitivity and stability, the CCD has almost completely replaced the photographic emulsion and photomultiplier as the detector of choice in quantitative scientific work. MPC  · 15000


  1. ^ "MPC/MPO/MPS Archive" . Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 27 July 2016.
  2. ^ "JPL – Solar System Dynamics: Discovery Circumstances" . Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 25 June 2019.
  3. ^ Schmadel, Lutz D. (2003). Dictionary of Minor Planet Names . Springer Berlin Heidelberg. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3. Retrieved 27 July 2016.
  4. ^ Schmadel, Lutz D. (2006). Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – Addendum to Fifth Edition: 2003–2005 . Springer Berlin Heidelberg. ISBN 978-3-540-34360-8. Retrieved 27 July 2016.
  5. ^ Herget, Paul (1968). The Names of the Minor Planets. Cincinnati, Ohio: Minor Planet Center, Cincinnati Observatory. OCLC 224288991 .
  6. ^ "Guide to Minor Body Astrometry – When can I name my discovery?" . Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 20 July 2019.
  7. ^

Preceded by
Meanings of minor planet names
List of minor planets: 14,001–15,000
Succeeded by

Categories: Lists of meanings of minor planet names

Information as of: 27.06.2020 05:01:32 CEST

Source: Wikipedia (Authors [History])    License : CC-by-sa-3.0

Changes: All pictures and most design elements which are related to those, were removed. Some Icons were replaced by FontAwesome-Icons. Some templates were removed (like “article needs expansion) or assigned (like “hatnotes”). CSS classes were either removed or harmonized.
Wikipedia specific links which do not lead to an article or category (like “Redlinks”, “links to the edit page”, “links to portals”) were removed. Every external link has an additional FontAwesome-Icon. Beside some small changes of design, media-container, maps, navigation-boxes, spoken versions and Geo-microformats were removed.

Please note: Because the given content is automatically taken from Wikipedia at the given point of time, a manual verification was and is not possible. Therefore does not guarantee the accuracy and actuality of the acquired content. If there is an Information which is wrong at the moment or has an inaccurate display please feel free to contact us: email.
See also: Legal Notice & Privacy policy.