Mid front rounded vowel - en.LinkFang.org

Mid front rounded vowel

Mid front rounded vowel
IPA Number310 430
Entity (decimal)ø​̞
Unicode (hex)U+00F8 U+031E
X-SAMPA2_o or 9_r

The mid front rounded vowel is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages.

Although there is no dedicated symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents the "exact" mid front rounded vowel between close-mid [ø] and open-mid [œ], ⟨ø⟩ is generally used. If precision is desired, diacritics can be used, such as ⟨ø̞⟩ or ⟨œ̝⟩.


Mid front compressed vowel

The mid front compressed vowel is typically transcribed in IPA simply as ⟨ø̞⟩ or ⟨œ̝⟩. This article uses the first symbol for simplicity. There is no dedicated diacritic for compression in the IPA. However, the compression of the lips can be shown with the letter ⟨β̞⟩ as ⟨e̞͡β̞⟩ / ⟨ɛ̝͡β̞⟩ (simultaneous [e̞] / [ɛ̝] and labial compression) or ⟨e̞ᵝ⟩ / ⟨ɛ̝ᵝ⟩ ([e̞] / [ɛ̝] modified with labial compression). The spread-lip diacritic ⟨  ͍ ⟩ may also be used with a rounded vowel letters ⟨ø͍˕⟩ / ⟨œ͍˔⟩ as an ad hoc symbol, though technically 'spread' means unrounded.



Because front rounded vowels are assumed to have compression, and few descriptions cover the distinction, some of the following may actually have protrusion.

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Bavarian Amstetten dialect[1] [example needed] Contrasts close-mid /ø/, true-mid /ø̞/ and open-mid /œ/ front rounded vowels.[1]
Breton[2] [example needed] Possible realization of unstressed /œ/; can be open-mid [œ] or close-mid [ø] instead.[2]
Catalan Northern[3] fulles [ˈfø̞jəs] 'leaves' Found in Occitan and French loanwords and interferences. See Catalan phonology
Danish Standard[4] høne [ˈhœ̝ːnə] 'hen' Also described as close-mid [øː];[5] typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨œː⟩ See Danish phonology
Dutch Orsmaal-Gussenhoven dialect[6] mùl [mœ̝ɫ] 'well' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨œ⟩.
English Cockney[7] bird [bœ̝ːd] 'bird' Occasional realization of /ɜː/; can be unrounded [ɛ̝̈ː] or, more often, unrounded central [ɜ̝ː] instead.[7] May be transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɜː⟩ or ⟨œː⟩.
General New Zealand[8][9] May be open-mid [œː] instead. In broader varieties, it is close-mid or higher.[8][9][10] Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɵː⟩. See New Zealand English phonology
South African[11] Used in General and Broad accents; may be close-mid [øː] instead. In the Cultivated variety, it is realized as mid central unrounded [ɜ̝ː].[11] See South African English phonology
Southern Welsh[12] Also described as open-mid [œː][13] and close-mid [øː].[14][15]
West Midlands[16]
Finnish[17][18] rölli [ˈrø̞lːi] 'Common bent' See Finnish phonology
Greek Tyrnavos[19] κοριός / koreos [ko̞ˈɾø̞s] 'bedbug' Corresponds to /jo/ and /eo/ in Standard Modern Greek.[19]
Hungarian[20] öl [ø̞l] 'kill' See Hungarian phonology
Icelandic[21] öld [œ̝l̪t̪] 'age' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨œ⟩. The long allophone is often diphthongized to [øœ].[22] See Icelandic phonology
Korean[23] 왼손 / oenson [ø̞ːnson] 'left hand' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ø⟩. Diphthongized to [we] in Modern Standard Korean. See Korean phonology
Ripuarian Kerkrade dialect[24] mölle [ˈmœ̝lə] 'mill' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨œ⟩.
Romanian[25] bleu [blø̞] 'light blue' Found only in loanwords.[25] See Romanian phonology
Turkish[26][27] Standard göz [ɟø̞z̪] 'eye' May be transcribed in IPA with ⟨œ⟩. See Turkish phonology

Mid front protruded vowel

Mid front protruded vowel

Catford notes[full citation needed] that most languages with rounded front and back vowels use distinct types of labialization, protruded back vowels and compressed front vowels. However, a few languages, such as Scandinavian ones, have protruded front vowels. One of these, Swedish, even contrasts the two types of rounding in front vowels (see near-close near-front rounded vowel, with Swedish examples of both types of rounding).

As there are no diacritics in the IPA to distinguish protruded and compressed rounding, ⟨ø̞ʷ⟩ (a mid front rounded vowel modified by endolabialization) will be used here as an ad hoc symbol for protruded mid front vowels.

Acoustically, this sound is "between" the more typical compressed mid front vowel [ø̞] and the unrounded mid front vowel [].



Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Swedish Central Standard[28][29] nött [n̪œ̝ʷt̪ː]  'worn' (past part. s.) Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨œ⟩. See Swedish phonology


  1. ^ a b Traunmüller (1982), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:290)
  2. ^ a b Ternes (1992), p. 433.
  3. ^ Recasens (1996), pp. 80–81.
  4. ^ Basbøll (2005), p. 46.
  5. ^ Basbøll & Wagner (1985:40), cited in Basbøll (2005:48).
  6. ^ Peters (2010), p. 241.
  7. ^ a b Wells (1982), p. 305.
  8. ^ a b Wells (1982), p. 607.
  9. ^ a b Roca & Johnson (1999), p. 188.
  10. ^ Bauer & Warren (2004), pp. 582, 591.
  11. ^ a b Lass (2002), p. 116.
  12. ^ Wells (1982), p. 381.
  13. ^ Penhallurick (2004), p. 104.
  14. ^ Collins & Mees (1990), p. 95.
  15. ^ Connolly (1990), p. 125.
  16. ^ Collins & Mees (2003), p. 299.
  17. ^ Iivonen & Harnud (2005), pp. 60, 66.
  18. ^ Suomi, Toivanen & Ylitalo (2008), p. 21.
  19. ^ a b c Trudgill (2009), pp. 86–87.
  20. ^ Szende (1994), p. 92.
  21. ^ Brodersen (2011).
  22. ^ Árnason (2011), pp. 57–60.
  23. ^ Lee (1999), p. 121.
  24. ^ Stichting Kirchröadsjer Dieksiejoneer (1997), p. 16.
  25. ^ a b Romanian Academy (2005), p. ?.
  26. ^ Zimmer & Orgun (1999), p. 155.
  27. ^ Göksel & Kerslake (2005), p. 11.
  28. ^ Engstrand (1999), p. 140.
  29. ^ Elmquist (1915), p. 33.


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  • Basbøll, Hans (2005), The Phonology of Danish, ISBN 0-203-97876-5
  • Basbøll, Hans; Wagner, Johannes (1985), Kontrastive Phonologie des Deutschen und Dänischen, Max Niemeyer Verlag, ISBN 978-3-484-30160-3
  • Bauer, Laurie; Warren, Paul (2004), "New Zealand English: phonology", in Schneider, Edgar W.; Burridge, Kate; Kortmann, Bernd; Mesthrie, Rajend; Upton, Clive (eds.), A handbook of varieties of English, 1: Phonology, Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 580–602, ISBN 3-11-017532-0
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External links

Categories: Mid vowels | Front vowels | Rounded vowels

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