Ningbo


Ningbo

宁波市

Ning-po, Nhingpo
Clockwise: South Business District, Yinzhou District Government of Ningbo, Tianfeng Pagoda, Dongqian Lake, Tianyi Pavilion Museum
Ningbo City in Zhejiang
Coordinates (Tianyi Square):
CountryChina
ProvinceZhejiang
County-level divisions11
Township divisions148
Municipal seatYinzhou District
Government
 • TypeSub-provincial city
 • BodyNingbo Municipal People's Congress
 • CCP SecretaryPeng Jiaxue
 • Congress ChairmanYu Hongyi
 • MayorQiu Dongyao
 • CPPCC ChairmanXu Yuning
Area
 • Prefecture-level & Sub-provincial city9,816.23 km2 (3,790.07 sq mi)
 • Urban
2,461.8 km2 (950.5 sq mi)
 • Metro
2,461.8 km2 (950.5 sq mi)
Elevation
150 m (488 ft)
Population
 (2020)[1]
 • Prefecture-level & Sub-provincial city9 404 283
 • Urban
3,491,597
 • Urban density1,400/km2 (3,700/sq mi)
 • Metro
3,491,597
 • Metro density1,400/km2 (3,700/sq mi)
GDP (2020)
 • TotalCNY 1240.87 billion (US$191.68 billion)
 • per capitaCNY 131,947 (US$20,450)
 • Growth 3.3%
Time zoneUTC+8 (China Standard)
Postal code
315000
Area code(s)574
ISO 3166 codeCN-ZJ-02
Vehicle registration浙B
City treesCamphor Laurel
Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Sieb.
City flowersCamellia
Websitewww.ningbo.gov.cn (in Chinese)
Ningbo
"Ningbo" in Simplified (top) and Traditional (bottom) Chinese characters
Simplified Chinese宁波
Traditional Chinese寧波 / 𡩋波
WuNihng-bo  (locally)
Literal meaning"Tranquil Waves"

Ningbo (Chinese: 宁波; Ningbonese pronunciation: [ɲìɲ.póʔ], Standard Mandarin pronunciation: [nǐŋ pwó] (listen)), formerly romanized as Ningpo, is a major sub-provincial city in northeast Zhejiang province, People's Republic of China. It comprises 6 urban districts, 2 satellite county-level cities, and 2 rural counties including several islands in Hangzhou Bay and the East China Sea. Ningbo is the northern economic center[2] of the Yangtze Delta megalopolis, and is also the core city and center of the Ningbo Metropolitan Area.[3] To the north, Hangzhou Bay separates Ningbo from Shanghai; to the east lies Zhoushan in the East China Sea; on the west and south, Ningbo borders Shaoxing and Taizhou respectively. As of the 2020 Chinese National Census, the entire administrated area of Ningbo City had a population of 9.4 million (9,404,283).[4]

Ningbo is one of the 15 sub-provincial cities in China, and is one of the 5 separate state-planning cities[5] in China (the other four are Dalian, Qingdao, Xiamen, and Shenzhen), with the municipality possesses a separate state-planning status in many economic departments, rather than being governed by Zhejiang Province. Therefore, Ningbo has the provincial-level autonomy in making economic and financial policies.[6]

In 2020, the GDP of Ningbo is CNY 1240.87 billion[7] (US$191.68 billion), and it was ranked 12th among 300 cities in China.[8] Moreover, Ningbo is among the wealthiest cities in China, it ranked 8th in terms of average yearly disposable income in the year of 2020.[9] Up till 2020, Ningbo has had global headquarters and registered offices of over 100 listed companies,[10] and many regional business headquarters. In 2021, Ningbo was ranked 7th city in China in terms of the number of listed companies.[11] Furthermore, Ningbo was among the top 10 Chinese cities in the Urban Business Environment Report released by the Chinese state media China Central Television (CCTV) in 2019.[12]

As a city with rich culture and a long history dating back to Jingtou Mountain Culture in 6300 BC and the Hemudu culture in 4800 BC, Ningbo was awarded "City of Culture in East Asia" by the governments of China, of Japan, and of Korea in 2016.[13]

Its port, the port of Ningbo–Zhoushan, spread across several locations, is among the busiest in the world. The port of Ningbo-Zhoushan has been world's No. 1 busiest port by cargo tonnage and world's No. 3 busiest container port since 2010.[14]

Contents

Etymology


The first character in the city's name ning ( or ) means "serene", while its second character bo () translates to "wave". The city is abbreviated "" (pinyin: Yǒng) for the eponymous "Yong Hill" (甬山), a prominent coastal hill near the city, and the Yong River that flows through Ningbo. (The abbreviation Ning is used more commonly for Nanjing.)

It was once named Mingzhou (明州; Míngzhōu). The first character () is composed of two parts, representing two lakes inside the city wall: the Sun Lake (日湖) and the Moon Lake (月湖) dating back to Tang Dynasty 636 AD. Today, only the Moon Lake remains, and the old Sun Lake dried up in 19 century. In 2002, Ningbo government re-built the Sun Lake as one of the city parks.

History


Ningbo is one of China's oldest cities, with a history dating to the Jingtou Mountain Culture in 6300 BC and Hemudu culture in 4800 BC. Ningbo was known as a trade city on the silk road at least two thousand years ago, and then as a major port for foreign trade along with Yangzhou and Guangzhou in the Tang Dynasty, and Quanzhou and Guangzhou in the Sung dynasty.

From ancient times to the Sui Dynasty

As of 2020, the earliest relics of human activities discovered in Ningbo City are the Jingtou Mountain site discovered in Yuyao, dating back to 6300 BC, when the ancestors were already preying on seafood and eating rice . Since then, a large number of cultivated rice, farming tools, remains of dry fence buildings, remains of domestic livestock, and primitive religious items have been unearthed from related sites of the Hemudu culture (5000-4500 BC), which proves the existence of the culture of the eastern part of the Ningshao Plain, where Ningbo was located.

Before the Han Dynasty, the area where Ningbo City is located today is sparsely populated. In the Xia Dynasty, the location of Ningbo was called "Yin". In the Chun Qiu period, the area where Ningbo belonged was the Yue State . At that time, the Yue King Goujian built the Juzhang City in the present-day Cicheng Town and became the earliest city in Ningbo. After the middle of the Warring States period, the area of Ningbo became the jurisdiction of Chu State . In 221 BC, Qin unified the six states and Ningbo area belonged to Kuaiji Commandery , with 3 counties of Yin, Yin, and Juzhang (some studies assert there were 4 counties of Yin, Yin, Juzhang, and Yuyao). In the early years of the Western Han Dynasty, Kuaiji Commandery where Ningbo was located once belonged to the Kingdom of Jing and Wu. After the Seven Kingdoms was settled, Kuaiji Commandery was restored. In 589 AD (Sui Kai Huang nine years) Yin, Mao, Yuyao County 4 county were merged under the Wu State.

Buddhism began to influence Ningbo during the period of Three Kingdoms, Jin and Southern and Northern Dynasties. The earliest Buddhist temple Puji Temple was built during the Three Kingdoms period. The two major Buddhist temples, Ashoka Temple and Tiantong Temple, can be traced back to the Western Jin Dynasty. Ningbo's coastal defense also started from that period. 132 AD ( the Western Han Yang Jia first year), as a safeguard against Zeng Jing rebels, Jia mouth (now the town of Haikou) set up the first garrison to garrison. In the Spring and Autumn Period before this, Juzhang Port has become an important military port.

Tang and Song dynasty

Since the Tang dynasty Ningbo has been an important commercial port. Arab traders lived in Ningbo during the Song dynasty when it was known as Mingzhou,[15] as the ocean-going trade passages took precedence over land trade during this time.[16][17] Another name for Mingzhou/Ningbo was Siming. It was a well known center of ocean-going commerce with the foreign world.[18] These merchants did not intermingle with native Chinese, instead practicing their own customs and religion and inhabiting ghettos. They did not try to proselytize Islam to the Chinese.[19] Jews also lived in Ningbo, as evidenced by the fact that, after a major flood destroyed Torah scrolls in Kaifeng in 1642, a replacement was sent to the Kaifeng Jews by the Ningbo Jewish community.[20]

Ming dynasty

The city of Ningbo was known in Europe for a long time under the name of Liampó. This is the usual spelling used e.g. in the standard Portuguese history, João de Barros's Décadas da Ásia, although Barros explained that Liampó was a Portuguese "corruption" of the more correct Nimpó.[21][22] The spelling Liampó is also attested in the Peregrination (Peregrinação) by Fernão Mendes Pinto, a (so-called) autobiography written in Portuguese during the 16th century. For the mid-16th-century Portuguese, the nearby promontory, which they called the cape of Liampó, after the nearby "illustrious city" was the easternmost known point of the mainland Asia.[21] The Portuguese began trading in Ningbo around 1522. By 1542, the Portuguese had a sizable community in Ningbo (or, more likely, on nearby small islands such as Shuangyu). Portuguese activities from their Ningbo base included pillaging and attacking multiple Chinese port cities around Ningbo for plunder and spoil. They also enslaved people during their raids.[23] The Portuguese were ousted from the Ningbo area in 1548.

Qing dynasty

Ningbo was one of the five Chinese treaty ports opened by the Treaty of Nanjing (signed in 1842) at the end of the First Opium War between Britain and China. During the war, British forces briefly took possession of the walled city of Ningbo after storming the fortified town of Zhenhai at the mouth of the Yong River on October 10, 1841. The British subsequently repulsed a Chinese attempt to retake the city in the Battle of Ningpo on March 10, 1842. In 1861, the forces of the Taiping Rebellion took the city relatively unopposed as the defending garrison fled; they held the town for six months.[24] In March 1885, during the Sino-French War, Admiral Courbet's naval squadron blockaded several Chinese warships in Zhenhai Bay and exchanged fire with the shore defenses.

Ningbo was also once famed for traditional Chinese furniture production. During the Qing dynasty, western encyclopedias described Ningbo as a center of craftsmanship and industry.[25][26]

During the late Qing dynasty, in the 1800s, the Ningbo authorities contracted Cantonese pirates to exterminate and massacre Portuguese pirates who had raided Cantonese shipping around Ningbo. The massacre was "successful", with 40 Portuguese dead and only 2 Chinese dead, being dubbed "The Ningpo Massacre" by an English correspondent, who noted that the Portuguese pirates had behaved savagely towards the Chinese, and that the Portuguese authorities at Macau should have reined in the pirates.

During late Qing era, Western missionaries set up a Presbyterian Church in Ningbo. Li Veng-eing was a Reverend of the Ningpo Church.[27] The Ningpo College was managed by Rev. Robert F. Fitch. The four trustees were natives of Ningbo, three of them had Taotai rank.[28] Rev. George Evans Moule, B. A. was appointed a missionary to China by the Church of England Missionary Society, and arrived at Ningpo with Mrs. Moule in February 1858. He then began a mission station at Hang-chow, between which and Ningpo his time had been chiefly divided. He wrote Christian publications in the Ningbo dialect.[29]

Republican era

During World War II in 1940, Japan bombed Ningbo with ceramic bombs full of fleas carrying the bubonic plague.[30] According to Daniel Barenblatt, Prince Tsuneyoshi Takeda received, with Prince Mikasa, a special screening by Shiro Ishii of a film showing imperial planes loading germ bombs for bubonic dissemination over Ningbo in 1940.[31]

"It has been said of the Ningbo fishermen that, 'no people in the world apparently made so great an advance in the art of fishing; and for centuries past no people have made so little further progress.'"[32]

Between 80% to 90% of Ningbo's population fled the city during the Japanese invasion.[33]

Geography


Ningbo ranges in latitude from 28° 51' to 30° 33' N and in longitude from 120° 55' to 122° 16' E, bounded on the east by the East China Sea and Zhoushan Archipelago, on the north by Hangzhou Bay, across which it faces Jiaxing and Shanghai, on the west by Shaoxing, and on the south by Taizhou. Its land area is 9,816 square kilometers (3,790 sq mi), while oceanic territory amounts to 9,758 km2 (3,768 sq mi); there is a total 1,562 km (971 mi) of coastline including 788 km (490 mi) of mainland coastline and 774 km (481 mi) of island coastline, together accounting for one-third of the entire provincial coastline. There are 531 islands accounting for 524 km2 (202 sq mi) under the city's administration.

Ningbo's city proper is sandwiched between the ocean and low-lying mountains to the southwest, with coastal plain and valleys in between. Important peninsulas include the Chuanshan Peninsula (穿山半岛), located in Beilun District and containing mainland Zhejiang's easternmost point, and the Xiangshan Peninsula (象山半岛) in Xiangshan County. The Siming Mountains (四明山) run north from Mount Tiantai and within Ningbo City, traverse Yuyao City, Haishu District, and Fenghua District, reaching a height of 979 m (3,212 ft).

Climate

Ningbo has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa) with four distinctive seasons, characterized by hot, humid summers and chilly, cloudy and dry winters (with occasional snow). The mean annual temperature is 17.15 °C (62.9 °F), with monthly daily averages ranging from 5.3 °C (41.5 °F) in January to 28.8 °C (83.8 °F) in July. Extremes since 1951 have ranged from −8.8 °C (16 °F) on 12 January 1955 to 42.1 °C (108 °F) on 8 August 2013.[34] The city receives an average annual rainfall of 1,430 mm (56 in) and is affected by the plum rains of the Asian monsoon in June, when average relative humidity also peaks. From August to October, Ningbo experiences the effects of typhoons, and is affected by an average 1.8 storms annually, though the city is not often struck directly by these systems. A 2012 OECD study lists Ningbo among the top 20 cities worldwide most at risk of flooding due to anthropogenic climate change.[35]

Climate data for Ningbo (Yinzhou District, 1981–2010 normals)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 24.4
(75.9)
28.9
(84.0)
34.0
(93.2)
34.3
(93.7)
36.3
(97.3)
38.0
(100.4)
39.0
(102.2)
39.5
(103.1)
38.8
(101.8)
34.5
(94.1)
29.5
(85.1)
25.0
(77.0)
39.5
(103.1)
Average high °C (°F) 9.3
(48.7)
11.0
(51.8)
14.8
(58.6)
20.7
(69.3)
25.6
(78.1)
28.7
(83.7)
33.5
(92.3)
32.6
(90.7)
28.3
(82.9)
23.6
(74.5)
18.2
(64.8)
12.2
(54.0)
21.5
(70.8)
Daily mean °C (°F) 5.3
(41.5)
6.9
(44.4)
10.4
(50.7)
15.8
(60.4)
20.9
(69.6)
24.5
(76.1)
28.8
(83.8)
28.3
(82.9)
24.4
(75.9)
19.3
(66.7)
13.6
(56.5)
7.6
(45.7)
17.2
(62.9)
Average low °C (°F) 2.4
(36.3)
3.8
(38.8)
7.0
(44.6)
12.1
(53.8)
17.3
(63.1)
21.5
(70.7)
25.5
(77.9)
25.3
(77.5)
21.5
(70.7)
16.0
(60.8)
10.2
(50.4)
4.1
(39.4)
13.9
(57.0)
Record low °C (°F) −7.9
(17.8)
−6.2
(20.8)
−3.7
(25.3)
0.7
(33.3)
7.4
(45.3)
12.7
(54.9)
18.2
(64.8)
18.4
(65.1)
11.0
(51.8)
1.4
(34.5)
−3.0
(26.6)
−8.5
(16.7)
−8.5
(16.7)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 73.2
(2.88)
77.6
(3.06)
133.9
(5.27)
105.6
(4.16)
114.6
(4.51)
198.1
(7.80)
178.3
(7.02)
166.7
(6.56)
170.8
(6.72)
83.1
(3.27)
75.0
(2.95)
54.7
(2.15)
1,431.6
(56.35)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 12.6 12.3 16.9 15.3 14.7 16.4 13.1 14.5 14.1 10.3 8.9 8.5 157.6
Average relative humidity (%) 77 77 77 75 76 81 77 79 80 77 76 74 77
Mean monthly sunshine hours 123.7 108.4 121.7 142.4 156.7 147.8 243.8 238.0 171.5 166.5 143.4 146.1 1,910
Percent possible sunshine 38 35 33 37 37 35 57 58 46 47 45 46 43
Average ultraviolet index 4 5 7 9 10 11 11 11 9 7 4 3 8
Source 1: China Meteorological Administration,[36] China Weather (precipitation days 1971–2000) [37]
Source 2: Ningbo Climate Studies (sunshine)[38] Weather Atlas (uv)[39]

Administrative structure and divisions


Local officers of Ningbo

Administrative divisions of Ningbo

The sub-provincial city of Ningbo is as whole an urban group with one central group, one northern group, and one southern group.

It has direct jurisdiction over the following:

Map
Subdivision Simplified Chinese Pinyin Population (2020[40]) Area (km2) Density
6 Central Urban Districts
Haishu District 海曙区 Hǎishǔ Qū 1,041,285 595.03 1,748.29
Yinzhou District 鄞州区 Yínzhōu Qū 1,609,555 799.09 2,014.23
Jiangbei District 江北区 Jiangbei Qū 488,885 208.14 2,348.83
Beilun District 北仑区 Běilún Qū 829,448 597.76 1,387.59
Zhenhai District 镇海区 Zhènhǎi Qū 510,462 244.28 2,089.66
Fenghua District 奉化区 Fènghuà Qū 577,505 1,267.60 455.59
2 Southern Counties
Xiangshan County 象山县 Xiàngshān Xiàn 567,665 1,382.18 410.70
Ninghai County 宁海县 Nínghǎi Xiàn 695,958 1,843.26 377.57
2 Northern County-Level Cities
Yuyao 余姚市 Yúyáo Shì 1,254,032 1,500.80 835.58
Cixi 慈溪市 Cíxī Shì 1,829,488 1,360.63 1,344.59
Sum 9,404,283 9,816.23 958.03

Economy


Ningbo is an important port city located 220 kilometers (140 mi) south of Shanghai. The city's export industry dates back to the 7th century. Today, Ningbo is a major exporter of electrical products, textiles, food, and industrial tools. The city's private sector is especially well-developed, contributing 80 percent of total GDP in 2013.[41]

Historically, Ningbo was somewhat geographically isolated from other major cities. In 2007 the Hangzhou Bay Bridge was built, cutting highway transit time between Ningbo and Shanghai from four hours to two and a half. The city now serves as the economic center for the southern Yangtze River Delta and has been ranked among the most competitive cities in China.[41]

In 2009, Ningbo's economic activity reached US$60.8 billion, down 10.4% from 2008. The exports totaled US$38.65 billion, down 16.6% from the previous year. In addition, Ningbo imported US$22.16 billion of goods, up 3.1% from the previous year.[42]

Ningbo's economy grew 9.26% in 2013 to 712.89 billion yuan (US$115.12 billion).[41] In 2009, the city's per capita output was US$10,833, about three times the national average.[43]

Ningbo is famous for the Si Lan Nong Xiang flower, which is used for dying cloth. In 2008, Ningbo's cloth exports were responsible for 3% of its economic growth.

Foreign investment

With several important development zones established in or around Ningbo, the city has received considerable foreign investment.[44] Over 60 domestic and foreign-invested financial institutions have established operations in the city, which has also attracted more than 10,000 foreigners. The municipal government offers preferential policies designed to encourage investment in international trade, new strategic industries, manufacturing, information services, and creative industries.[41]

Economic and technological development zones

Ningbo Economic & Technological Development Zone

Located in the north-east of Ningbo, behind Beilun Port, NETD is 27 km (17 mi) away from the city center. With more than 20 years of great effort, NETD has already formed the general framework for large scale construction and development, and established the perfect investment environment. It is situated close to the Ningbo Port and Ningbo Lishe International Airport. Major Investors include Exxon Mobile, Dupont and Dow Chemical.[45]

Ningbo Daxie Development Zone

The Ningbo Daxie Development Zone was approved in 1993 and covers an area of 5.92 km2 (2.29 sq mi). Over more than ten years of development and construction, industrial and logistical foundations have been established in the zone for the transshipment of energy, liquid chemicals and containers.[45]

Ningbo National Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone

Ningbo National Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone was founded in 1999 and was upgraded to a national level zone in January 2007. It is 10 km (6.2 mi) from Ningbo International Airport and 18 km (11 mi) away from Ningbo Port. The zone serves as the important technical innovation base of Yangtze River Delta. Industries encouraged include chemicals production and processing, biotechnology and pharmaceuticals, raw material processing, Research and Development.[46]

Ningbo Free Trade Zone

Ningbo Free Trade Zone is one of the 15 free trade zones authorized by the State Council of China, and is the only free trade zone in Zhejiang Province. It was established by State Council in 1992, covering the area of 2.3 km2 (0.89 sq mi). It lies in the middle of the coastline of Mainland China, at the south of Yangtze River Delta. In 2008, its industrial output value was RMB 53.33 billion and grew at 19.8% as compared to 2007.[47]

Nordic Industrial Park

The Nordic Industrial Park Co. Ltd. (NIP) is one of the first wholly foreign-owned industrial parks in China located in Ningbo, Zhejiang Province. NIP is managed and operated by a Scandinavian management team.[48]

Ningbo Advertising Park

The Ningbo Advertising Park is a national level pilot park located in the Ningbo Southern Business District. The financial incentives have attracted over 300 relevant firms to establish operations.[49]

Ningbo Port


Ningbo is not just an ordinary city—it has the same authority as provincial governments for economic administration—and has a port second only to Shanghai around the world in terms of annual cargo throughput. Unlike Shanghai, the port is deep-water and capable of handling 300,000 ton vessels. The port is located mainly in Beilun district and Zhenhai district. In 2006, Ningbo Port started its expansion towards the neighboring island city of Zhoushan for the purpose of building an even larger port with higher capacity to compete with neighboring ports in the region, such as Shanghai's Yangshan Deep-Water Port. The statistics in 2010 showed that total cargo throughput was 627,000,000 tons and container throughput 13,144,000 TEUs. With bulk container breakdowns, hugely improved logistics, and massive chemical and foodstuff, processing developments, Ningbo could win the race against Shanghai for the preeminent Chinese east coast port.[50]

Ningbo is part of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road that runs from the Chinese coast to the south, via Singapore towards the southern tip of India, via Mombasa to the Mediterranean, there via Athens to the Upper Adriatic region to the northern Italian hub of Trieste with its rail connections to Central and the Eastern Europe.[51][52][53]

Tourism


Due to its long history and the prosperity in economics, Ningbo is a city with very rich rich tourist resources. Here is a list of the main tourist attractions that have been authorized by the Ningbo Municipal Bureau of Culture, Radio, Television and Tourism in each subdivisions of Ningbo city.

Main tourist attractions in 6 urban districts

Main tourist attractions in Haishu District

Main tourist attractions in Yinzhou District

Main tourist attractions in Jiangbei District

Main tourist attractions in Zhenhai District

Main tourist attractions in Beilun District

Main tourist attractions in Fenghua District

Main tourist attractions in 2 counties

Main tourist attractions in Xiangshan County

Main tourist attractions in Ninghai County

Main tourist attractions in 2 county-level cities

Main tourist attractions in Yuyao City (County)

Main tourist attractions in Cixi City (County)

Notable people


Many well known Chinese came from Ningbo or have Ningbo as their ancestral home.

People in mainland China
People in Hong Kong
People in Taiwan
People overseas

Transportation


Bridge

As there are three main rivers running through Ningbo, it is crucial to build bridges to improve the efficiency of the transport network in Ningbo. The Ling Bridge which connects Haishu district and Jiangdong District is the earliest modern bridge built in Ningbo, designed by German engineers. Since the late 1980s, 16 bridges have been built on the three rivers. Currently another 27 bridges are under construction.

The Hangzhou Bay Bridge, a combination cable-stayed bridge and causeway across Hangzhou Bay, opened to the public on May 1, 2008. This bridge connects the municipalities of Shanghai and Ningbo, and is considered the longest trans-oceanic bridge in the world. It is the world's second-longest bridge, after the Lake Pontchartrain Causeway in Louisiana, United States.

The Jintang Bridge, a 4 lane sea crossing bridge linking Jintang Island of Zhoushan and Zhenhai district, is a 27 km (17 mi) long opened on December 26, 2009.

The Xiangshan Harbor Bridge opened to traffic on December 29, 2012, connecting Ningbo with Xiangshan. The 47 km (29 mi)long project includes 22 km (14 mi) as the main body of the bridge and a 8 kilometer-long tunnel.[55]

Sea

The port of Ningbo is one of the world's busiest ports. It was ranked number 1 in total Cargo Volume and number 3 in total container traffic since 2019.[56]

Air

Ningbo Lishe International Airport connects Ningbo by air to the rest of China, with regularly scheduled domestic and international flights. In 2009, new air routes between Ningbo and Taiwan were opened. Jetstar Asia launched a new route between Ningbo and Singapore in September 2011. Tiger Air planned to begin flying this route from 26 December 2013.[needs update]

Railway

Three railway lines intersect in Ningbo: the Xiaoshan–Ningbo Railway (Xiaoyong Line), which runs west to Hangzhou, the Ningbo–Taizhou–Wenzhou (Yongtaiwen) Railway, which runs south to Wenzhou, and the Hangzhou–Ningbo High-Speed Railway, which runs parallel to the Xiaoyong Line providing high-speed railway service.

With the booming economy in the region, the Xiaoyong Railway, a conventional railway built in the 1950s, could not meet the demand for railway travel between Zhejiang's two largest cities, so construction of a new high-speed railway line between Hangzhou and Ningbo started in 2009. The new railway line was finished by 2013 and reduced travel time between Ningbo and Hangzhou to 50 minutes.

The Ningbo–Taizhou–Wenzhou Railway is a high-speed railway that opened in September 2009. It connects Ningbo with cities along the coast to the south to Fujian Province. High-speed trains on this line operate at speeds of up to 250 km/h (160 mph).

Ningbo re-opened the Ningbo railway station after three years of construction on December 28, 2013. With a construction area of more than 120,000 m2,[57] it is one of the largest railway stations in China.

Expressway

Seven expressways connect Ningbo with its surrounding cities:

Rapid rail transit and subway

Ningbo has multiple metro lines in service, under construction, and under authorized planning:

Ningbo Rail Transit in 6 Urban Districts of Ningbo (Not Including 2 County-level Cities and 2 Counties)
Lines Length in Kilometers (km) Number of Stations In-Service Year
Lines in Service
Line 1 46.17 29 2014
Line 2 33.95 27 2015
Line 3 38.63 27 2019
Line 4 36.11 25 2020
Lines Under Construction
Line 2 Extension 2.9 2 2021
Line 5 27.5 22 2021
Line 3 Extension 9.5 5 2023
Line 4 East Extension 2.5 1 Construction Began in 2021
Constructing Plans That Will be Completed by 2026
Line 1 West Extension 1.5 1 by 2026
Line 4 West Extension 2.5 1 by 2026
Line 6 38.6 24 by 2026
Line 7 38.8 25 by 2026
Line 8 22.6 18 by 2026

Since the Metro lines above serve mainly 6 urban districts of Ningbo, so Ningbo government announced several future plans to built further rapid transit to connect 6 urban districts with the county-level cities and counties.

Military


Ningbo is the headquarter of the East Sea Fleet of the Chinese People's Liberation Army Navy.

Culture


As a city with giant ports, Ningbo influenced many countries near China, such as Japan.

Language

Ningbo speech is a dialect of Wu Chinese that has preserved many aspects of ancient Chinese phonology. Its original wording mode can be found in classical reference books. It can be found that the trisyllable and tetrasyllable phrases or proverbs in Ningbo dialect make it most unusual and dynamic. Moreover, the onomatopoeia, assonance words, collocations, inversions, and other language characteristics within Ningbo dialect all add spice to people's[who?] life. After the unequal treaty port opening, western culture gradually permeated Ningbo. Thus the prefix " yang" before the nouns of imported goods is a special language phenomenon of Ningbo dialect.[59]

Food

Ningbo is known for Ningbo Tangyuan, small stuffed buns which are boiled. The stuffing is usually ground sesame mixed with sugar. It can also be mixed with pork fat. The stuffing is wrapped with sticky rice powder. Even more so, Ningbo is famous throughout China for its seafood. Seafood markets are abundant, carrying countless varieties of fish, crabs/lobsters/shrimp, shellfish, snails, jellyfish and other invertebrates, and sea vegetables in all stages of preparation from "still swimming," to cleaned and ready to cook, to fully cooked.

Festivals

Ningbo has many traditional Han Chinese festivals same as other provinces in China. However, the date of Mid-Autumn Festival is different from others. Han Chinese will have Mid-Autumn Festival on Lunar Calendar August 15, but Ningbo will have on August 16th. The most creditable history for this is that long ago, the whole city waited for Shih Hao, a Southern Sung prime minister.[clarification needed]

Education


At the end of the year 2020, there were 1,896 schools of all levels and types in the city, with a total of 1,418,000 students. Among them, there are 15 colleges and universities in Ningbo with 177,000 full-time students; 86 regular high schools with 93,000 students; 35 vocational schools with 69,000 students; 230 junior high schools with 21.7 students. There are 427 primary schools with 517,000 students. At the end of the year, there were 838 full-time private primary and secondary schools (including kindergartens) in the city, with 258,000 students in school (including kindergartens), accounting for 21.7% of the city's full-time primary and secondary school (including kindergartens) students. In the compulsory education section, there are 288,000 children of migrant workers go to schools in Ningbo.[60]

In the whole year of 2020, the city attract 1,372 more workers with doctoral degrees, with a total of 9,265; newly attracted 67,000 highly skilled talents, with a total of 551,000; newly attracted 35 post-doctoral research stations, with a total of 224; newly built skilled master jobs There are 10 offices, totaling 100. Throughout the year, 327,000 skilled personnel were trained in the city. In the whole year of 2020, 166,000 university graduates were attracted to Ningbo City, a year-on-year increase of 20.5%.

Higher-Educational institutions

Ningbo has 15 universities and colleges as of May 2021. Besides, Ningbo has many research institutions that offers graduate degree programs. Here is a list of current universities and colleges in Ningbo.

List of Universities and Colleges in Ningbo as of May 2021
English Name Chinse Name (中文名) Degree Program Website Note
Ningbo University 宁波大学 bachelor's degree, master's degree, doctoral degree https://www.nbu.edu.cn/en/ A Chinese Ministry of Education Double First Class Discipline University, with Double First Class status in certain disciplines
University of Nottingham, Ningbo China 宁波诺丁汉大学 bachelor's degree, master's degree, doctoral degree https://www.nottingham.edu.cn/en/ Affiliated with the University of Nottingham in the United Kingdom (UK) and the first Sino-foreign university in China
Ningbo Institute of Technology, Zhejiang University 浙大宁波理工学院 bachelor's degree, master's degree, doctoral degree http://www.nit.zju.edu.cn/en/
Zhejiang Wanli University 浙江万里学院 bachelor's degree, master's degree http://en.zwu.edu.cn/
Ningbo University of Technology 宁波工程学院 bachelor's degree, master's degree http://www.nbut.cn/
Ningbo University of Finance and Economics 宁波财经学院 bachelor's degree http://www.nbut.cn/
College of Science and Technology, Ningbo University 宁波大学科学技术学院 bachelor's degree https://www.ndky.edu.cn/ An independent college of Ningbo University
China Coast Guard Academy 中国人民武装警察部队海警学院 bachelor's degree
Zhejiang University of Pharmacy 浙江药科职业大学 associate degree, bachelor's degree https://www.zjpc.net.cn/
Zhejiang Business Technology Institute 浙江工商职业技术学院 associate degree https://www.zjbti.net.cn/
Zhejiang Pharmaceutical College 宁波职业技术学院 associate degree https://en.nbpt.edu.cn/
Zhejiang Fashion Institute of Technology 浙江纺织服装职业技术学院 associate degree http://www.zjff.edu.cn/
Ningbo City College of Vocational Technology 宁波城市职业技术学院 associate degree https://www.nbcc.cn/
Ningbo College of Health Sciences 宁波卫生职业技术学院 associate degree http://www.nbchs.net/
Ningbo Childhood Education College 宁波幼儿师范高等专科学校 associate degree https://www.nbei.net/

As of 2020, many famous universities and research institutions have an operating campus or institutes in Ningbo, most of them have been offering graduate degrees programs.

Part of Research Institutions Offering Graduate Programs in Ningbo
English Name Chinese Name (中文名)
Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology & Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences 中国科学院宁波材料技术与工程研究所
Ningbo Institute of Technology, BeihangUniversity 北京航空航天大学宁波创新研究院
Zhejiang University, Ningbo 浙江大学宁波校区
Harbin Institute of Technology, Ningbo 哈尔滨工业大学宁波智能装备研究院
Dalian University of Technology, Ningbo 大连理工大学宁波研究院
Tianjin University, Ningbo 天津大学浙江研究院
Ningbo Institute of Marine-Derived Pharmaceutical, Peking University 北京大学宁波海洋药物研究院
Northwestern Polytechnical University, Ningbo 西北工业大学宁波研究院

Compared to other 14 sub-provincial cities in China, Ningbo has the smallest number of higher-educational institutions.

Secondary and primary education

Compulsory education (basic education in Chinese terms) is from the ages 6 to 15. Students are catered to in a variety of state and private schools. Studying for the gaokao(高考), a test of a student's skill, is optional.[61] At the end of the year 2020, there were 86 regular high schools with 93,000 students in Ningbo; 35 vocational schools with 69,000 students; 230 junior high schools with 21.7 students. There are 427 primary schools with 517,000 students. At the end of the year, there were 838 full-time private primary and secondary schools (including kindergartens) in the city, with 258,000 students in school (including kindergartens), accounting for 21.7% of the city's full-time primary and secondary school (including kindergartens) students. In the compulsory education section, there are 288,000 children of migrant workers go to schools in Ningbo.[60]

International education

Several schools are permitted to operate foreign educational programs as an alternative to the Chinese National curriculum and accept international students.

Access International Academy Ningbo (AIAN) and Ningbo Zhicheng School International (NZSI) both offer the American AERO (American Education Reaches Out) curriculum with the College Board Advanced Placement examinations. Ningbo International School (NBIS) delivers the Cambridge International Primary and Secondary Curricula leading to iGCSE Examinations and A-Levels. Huamao Multicultural Education Academy[62] is an IB World School and offers an international curriculum through the IB Primary Years Program for students ages 3–12 and the IB Diploma Program for students ages 16–19.

Twin towns – sister cities


Ningbo is twinned with:[63]

City Country Since
Nagaokakyō, Kyoto  Japan 1983
Aachen  Germany 1986
Wilmington, Delaware  United States 1988
Waitakere City  New Zealand 1998
Rouen  France 1990
Santos, São Paulo  Brazil 2002
Port Elizabeth  South Africa 2003
Veszprém  Hungary 2003
Stavanger  Norway 2004
Varna  Bulgaria 2004
Bydgoszcz  Poland 2005
Nottingham  United Kingdom 2005
Florence  Italy 2008
Daegu  South Korea 2013
Bitola  North Macedonia 2014

See also


References


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External links









Categories: Ningbo | Prefecture-level divisions of Zhejiang | Port cities and towns in China | National Forest Cities in China | Jiangnan




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