Non-native pronunciations of English -

Non-native pronunciations of English

Non-native pronunciations of English result from the common linguistic phenomenon in which non-native users of any language tend to carry the intonation, phonological processes and pronunciation rules from their first language or first languages into their English speech. They may also create innovative pronunciations for English sounds not found in the speaker's first language.



The speech of non-native English speakers may exhibit pronunciation characteristics that result from their imperfectly learning the sound system of English, either by transferring the phonological rules from their mother tongue into their English speech ("interference") or through implementing strategies similar to those used in primary language acquisition.[1] They may also create innovative pronunciations for English sounds not found in the speaker's first language.[1]

The age at which speakers begin to immerse themselves into a language (such as English) is linked to the degree to which native speakers are able to detect a non-native accent; the exact nature of the link is disputed amongst scholars and may be affected by "neurological plasticity, cognitive development, motivation, psychosocial states, formal instruction, language learning aptitude", and the usage of their first (L1) and second (L2) languages.[2]

English is unusual in that speakers rarely produce an audible release between consonant clusters and often overlap constriction times. Speaking English with a timing pattern that is dramatically different may lead to speech that is difficult to understand.[3]

More transparently, differing phonological distinctions between a speaker's first language and English create a tendency to neutralize such distinctions in English,[4] and differences in the inventory or distribution of sounds may cause substitutions of native sounds in the place of difficult English sounds and/or simple deletion.[5] This is more common when the distinction is subtle between English sounds or between a sound of English and of a speaker's primary language. While there is no evidence to suggest that a simple absence of a sound or sequence in one language's phonological inventory makes it difficult to learn,[6] several theoretical models have presumed that non-native speech perceptions reflect both the abstract phonological properties and phonetic details of the native language.[7]

Non-native pronunciations may be transmitted to the children of learners, who will then exhibit a number of the same characteristics despite being native speakers themselves.[8] For example, this process has resulted in many of the distinctive qualities of Irish English and Highland English which were heavily influenced by a Goidelic substratum.[9]



General features among most or all Arabic speakers:


E.g. phase can be pronounced like face (even though Catalan has both /s/ and /z/ phonemes).[16]
E.g. stop being pronounced estop.[17]
E.g. instant being pronounced instan[17]
E.g. the blackbird. vs. the black bird.[15]
E.g. with sugar or without sugar? (the second sugar is more heavily stressed)[15]


These are the most common characteristics of the Czech pronunciation of English:[19]


These are some of the most significant errors a Dutch speaker might have:

Pronunciation of consonants
Pronunciation of vowels






A study on Italian children's pronunciation of English revealed the following characteristics:[41]

In addition, Italians learning English have a tendency to pronounce words as they are spelled, so that walk is [walk], guide is [ɡwid̪], and boiled is [ˈbɔilɛd]. This is also true for loanwords borrowed from English as water, which is pronounced [ˈvat̪ɛr] instead of [ˈwɔːtə(r)].




Various pronunciation mistakes are bound to happen among Brazilian L2 speakers of English, among which:[44]

Pronunciation of vowels
Pronunciation of consonants



E.g. the blackbird. vs. the black bird.[15]
E.g. with sugar or without sugar?
(the second sugar is more heavily stressed)[15]



Note: There are three main dialects in Vietnamese, a northern one centered on Hanoi, a central one whose prestige accent is centered on Huế, and a southern one centered on Ho Chi Minh City.

See also


  1. ^ a b MacDonald (1989:224)
  2. ^ Munro & Mann (2005:311)
  3. ^ Zsiga (2003:400–401)
  4. ^ a b Jeffers & Lehiste (1979:140)
  5. ^ a b c Goldstein, Fabiano & Washington (2005:203)
  6. ^ MacDonald (1989:223)
  7. ^ See the overview at Hallé, Best & Levitt (1999:283)
  8. ^ MacDonald (1989:215)
  9. ^ McEwan-Fujita, Emily. "Gaelic and English" . Experience an Emerald Adventure.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i Hago & Khan (2015), p. 89.
  11. ^ a b Al Saqqaf & Vaddapalli (2012), p. 48.
  12. ^ Khattab (2002:101)
  13. ^ a b Hago & Khan (2015), p. 94.
  14. ^ Hago & Khan (2015), p. 96.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Swan 2001, p. 91.
  16. ^ a b c d Swan 2001, p. 93.
  17. ^ a b c d Swan 2001, p. 94.
  18. ^ a b Swan 2001, pp. 91, 96.
  19. ^ Melen (2010:71–75)
  20. ^ Collins & Mees 2003, p. 11, 286.
  21. ^ a b c d e Collins & Mees 2003, p. 286.
  22. ^ a b Collins & Mees 2003, p. 285-286.
  23. ^ a b c d Collins & Mees 2003, p. 285.
  24. ^ a b Collins & Mees 2003, p. 287.
  25. ^ Collins & Mees 2003, p. 10, 288.
  26. ^ Collins & Mees 2003, p. 10.
  27. ^ a b c d e Collins & Mees 2003, p. 289.
  28. ^ a b Collins & Mees 2003, p. 288.
  29. ^ Collins & Mees 2003, p. ?.
  30. ^ Hallé, Best & Levitt (1999:294)
  31. ^ Paradise & LaCharité (2001:257), citing LaCharité & Prévost (1999)
  32. ^ a b "French Speakers' English Pronunciation Errors" . 2013-12-06.
  33. ^ Paradis & LaCharité 2012.
  34. ^ Gut (2009)
  35. ^ a b c d "10 English Pronunciation Errors by German Speakers - Pronunciation Studio" . 2016-04-04. Retrieved 2017-03-04.
  36. ^ a b Hickey, Raymond (October 2014). "German pronunciations of English" (PDF). University of Duisburg-Essen.
  37. ^ Shoebottom, Paul. "Language differences: English - German" . Retrieved 2017-03-04.
  38. ^ a b c d e Shoebottom (2007)
  39. ^ Nádasdy (2006)
  40. ^ Kovács & Siptár (2006:?)
  41. ^ Martin Russell, Analysis of Italian children's English pronunciation Archived 2007-05-27 at the Wayback Machine. Accessed 2007-07-12.
  42. ^ Goto (1971:?)
  43. ^ Hallé, Best & Levitt (1999:284)
  44. ^ "Pronunciation problems for Brazilian students of English" . Archived from the original on 2009-10-15. Retrieved 2009-10-15.
  45. ^ Palatalization in Brazilian Portuguese/English interphonology
  46. ^ Preceding phonological context effects on palatalization in Brazilian Portuguese/English interphonology Page 68.
  47. ^ Thompson (1991)
  48. ^ Zsiga (2003:400–401, 423)
  49. ^ a b c d e f g h i "LanguageLink TEFL clinic - Pronunciation" .
  50. ^ a b "О характерных ошибках в произношении при изучении английского языка" . 2017-10-20.
  51. ^ a b c "Как исправить или улучшить свое произношение?" .
  52. ^ a b c d e f MacDonald (1989:219)
  53. ^ Jeffers & Lehiste (1979:139)
  54. ^ Hwa-Froelich, Hodson & Edwards (2003:269)
  55. ^ a b Hwa-Froelich, Hodson & Edwards (2003:267)
  56. ^ a b Hwa-Froelich, Hodson & Edwards (2003:271)
  57. ^ Hwa-Froelich, Hodson & Edwards (2003:265)


Further reading

External links

Categories: English as a second or foreign language | Macaronic forms of English | English phonology | English dialects | Language acquisition | Language comparison

Source: Wikipedia - pronunciations of English (Authors [History])    License : CC-by-sa-3.0

Changes: All pictures and most design elements which are related to those, were removed. Some Icons were replaced by FontAwesome-Icons. Some templates were removed (like “article needs expansion) or assigned (like “hatnotes”). CSS classes were either removed or harmonized.
Wikipedia specific links which do not lead to an article or category (like “Redlinks”, “links to the edit page”, “links to portals”) were removed. Every external link has an additional FontAwesome-Icon. Beside some small changes of design, media-container, maps, navigation-boxes, spoken versions and Geo-microformats were removed.

Information as of: 15.05.2020 05:36:41 CEST - Please note: Because the given content is automatically taken from Wikipedia at the given point of time, a manual verification was and is not possible. Therefore does not guarantee the accuracy and actuality of the acquired content. If there is an Information which is wrong at the moment or has an inaccurate display please feel free to contact us: email.
See also: Imprint & Privacy policy.