Podlaskie Voivodeship - en.LinkFang.org

Podlaskie Voivodeship


Podlaskie Voivodeship

Województwo podlaskie
Seal
Coat of arms
Location within Poland
Coordinates (Białystok):
Country Poland
CapitalBiałystok
Counties
Government
 • TypeVoivodeship
 • BodyPodlaskie Regional Assembly
 • VoivodeBohdan Paszkowski
Area
 • Total20,180 km2 (7,790 sq mi)
Population
 (30-06-2014)
 • Total1,193,348
 • Density59/km2 (150/sq mi)
 • Urban
712,675
 • Rural
484,935
ISO 3166 codePL-20
Vehicle registrationB
HDI (2017)0.843[1]
very high · 9th
Websitebialystok.uw.gov.pl
  • further divided into 118 gminas.

Podlaskie Voivodeship or Podlasie Province[2] (Polish: Województwo podlaskie, [vɔjɛˈvut͡stfɔ pɔdˈlaskʲɛ]; Lithuanian: Palenkės vaivadija; Belarusian: Падляскае ваяводства) is a voivodeship (province) in northeastern Poland. It borders on Masovian Voivodeship to the west, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship to the northwest, Lublin Voivodeship to the south, the Belarusian Voblasts of Grodno and Brest to the east, the Lithuanian Counties of Alytus and Marijampolė to the northeast, and the Kaliningrad Oblast of Russia to the north.

The capital of Podlasie Province is Białystok. The province was created on 1 January 1999, pursuant to the Polish local government reforms adopted in 1998, from the former Białystok and Łomża Voivodeships and the eastern half of the former Suwałki Voivodeship.

Contents

Etymology


The voivodeship takes its name from the historic region of Poland called Podlasie.

There are two opinions regarding the origin of the region's name[citation needed]. People often derive it from the Slavic les or las, meaning "forest", i.e., it is an area "by the wood(s)" or an "area of forests", which would bring Podlasie close in meaning to adjacent Polesia. This theory has been questioned, as it does not properly take into consideration the vowel shifts "a" > "e" > "i" in various Slavic languages (in fact, it mixes vowels from different languages).[citation needed] Heavily wooded Podlasie is home to the primeval Białowieża Forest and National Park, habitat of the European wisent bison and tarpan.

A second view holds that the term comes from the expression pod Lachem, i.e., "under the Poles" (see: Lechia). Some claim it to mean "under Polish rule", which does not seem historically sound, as the area belonged to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania until 1569, and the southern part of it—until 1795.

A better variant of the latter theory holds that the name originates from the period when the territory was within the Trakai Voivodeship of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, along the border with Mazovia Province, primarily a fief of the Poland of the Piasts, and later part of the Kingdom of Poland of the Jagiellons. Hence pod Lachem would mean "near the Poles", "along the border with Poland". The historical Lithuanian name of the region, Palenkė, has exactly this meaning.

History


The voivodeship was created on January 1, 1999, out of the former Białystok and Łomża Voivodeships and the eastern half of the former Suwałki Voivodeship, pursuant to the Polish local government reforms adopted in 1998.

Geography


It has a varied landscape, shaped in the north by Baltic glaciation, the rest by Middle Poland glaciation. The highest peaks are in the north (Rowelska Top - 298 m), where the landscape is dominated by a hilly lake district. Lakeland: Zachodniosuwalskie, Wschodniosuwalskie, Ełckie) and Sandrowy lake district (Augustów Plain) in the central and southern pre-glacial plains prevail (plateaus: Kolneńska, Białystok, Wysokomazowiecka, Drohiczynska, Sokólskie Hills, Międzyrzecko łomżyński, Plain Bielsko), varied in topography with small basins and river valleys. Kurpie lie on the west edge of the outwash plains. Sand, gravel, clay, moraine, and in the valleys and basins of the rivers silt, sand and river peat predominate on the surface.

Environment


The vast forests (Białowieża, Augustów, Knyszyń, Kurpiowska), some of which are the only ones in Europe to have retained their original character, contain a unique wealth of flora and fauna. The vegetation of the region is extremely diverse, which contributes to the richness of the animal world. Visitors can also see moose, wolves, lynx and bison living in the Białowieża Forest and Knyszyń Forest.

Podlaskie has the lowest population density of the sixteen Polish voivodeships, and its largely unspoiled nature is one of its chief assets. Around 30% of the area of the voivodeship is under legal protection. The Polish part of the Białowieża Forest biosphere reserve (also a World Heritage Site) is in Podlaskie. There are four National Parks (Białowieża, Biebrza, Narew and Wigry), three Landscape Parks (Knyszyń Forest, Łomża and Suwałki), 88 nature reserves, and 15 protected landscape areas. The voivodeship constitutes a part of the ecologically clean area known as "the Green Lungs of Poland".

Climate


Podlaskie has a Warm Summer Continental or Hemiboreal climate (Dfb) according to the Köppen climate classification system, which is characterized by warm temperatures during summer and long and frosty winters. It is substantially different from most of the other Polish lowlands. The region is one of the coldest in Poland, with the average temperature in January being −5 °C (23 °F). The average temperature in a year is 7 °C (45 °F). The number of frost days ranges from 50 to 60, with frost from 110 to 138 days and the duration of snow cover from 90 to 110 days. Mean annual rainfall values oscillate around 550 millimetres (21.7 in), and the vegetation period lasts 200 to 210 days.[3]

Podlaskie is the coldest region of Poland, located in the very northeast of the country near the border with Belarus and Lithuania. The region has a continental climate which is characterized by high temperatures during summer and long and frosty winters. The climate is affected by the cold fronts which come from Scandinavia and Siberia. The average temperature in the winter ranges from -15 °C (5 °F) to -4 °C (24.8 °F).[4]

Climate data for Białystok
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 12
(54)
16
(61)
20
(68)
24
(75)
30
(86)
30
(86)
33
(91)
32
(90)
28
(82)
22
(72)
12
(54)
11
(52)
33
(91)
Average high °C (°F) −1
(30)
0
(32)
4
(39)
11
(52)
17
(63)
20
(68)
21
(70)
21
(70)
16
(61)
10
(50)
3
(37)
1
(34)
10
(51)
Average low °C (°F) −6
(21)
−6
(21)
−2
(28)
1
(34)
7
(45)
10
(50)
12
(54)
11
(52)
7
(45)
3
(37)
0
(32)
−3
(27)
2
(36)
Record low °C (°F) −34
(−29)
−25
(−13)
−23
(−9)
−7
(19)
−3
(27)
1
(34)
5
(41)
2
(36)
−4
(25)
−10
(14)
−16
(3)
−26
(−15)
−34
(−29)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 30
(1.2)
20
(0.8)
30
(1.2)
30
(1.2)
50
(2.0)
70
(2.8)
70
(2.8)
70
(2.8)
50
(2.0)
40
(1.6)
40
(1.6)
40
(1.6)
580
(22.8)
Average precipitation days 8 7 8 8 8 10 10 9 9 8 10 10 106
Average rainy days 7 7 8 9 7 8 8 7 8 9 9 6 93
Average snowy days 9 10 7 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 7 41
Mean monthly sunshine hours 21 54 139 138 207 236 217 205 162 97 27 20 1,523
Source 1: Weatherbase [5]
Source 2: ClimateData.eu[6]

Subdivisions and Białystok Metropolitan Region


Podlaskie Voivodeship is divided into 17 counties (powiats): 3 city counties and 14 land counties. These are further divided into 118 gminas.

Metropolitan Białystok was designated by the Voivodeship of the Regulation No. 52/05 of 16 May 2005 [7] in order to help economically develop the region. In 2006, the metropolitan area population was 450,254 inhabitants.[8] It covers an area of 1.521 km ². For one km2, there are about 265 people. Among urban residents are more women - 192 thousand. on 100 men, 108 women on average. The municipalities adjacent to Białystok are slowly losing their agricultural character, becoming the residential suburban neighborhoods.

Demographics


Podlaskie is the land of the confluence of cultures – Polish, Belarusian, Ukrainian and Lithuanian – and is indicative of the ethnic territories limits. Eastward of Podlaskie lie historic Polish lands, which are now part of Ukraine and Belarus and Lithuania. Today, mainly Polish and Ruthenian (Ukrainian and Belarusian) are spoken in Podlaskie, while Lithuanian is preserved by the small but compact Lithuanian minority concentrated in the Sejny County.

At the end of 2009 in Podlaskie Voivodeship there were 1,189,700 inhabitants, 3.1 per cent of the total population of Poland. The average density of the population, the number of the population per 1 km2, was 59. The urban population in the same period was 60.2 per cent of the total number of inhabitants of the voivodeship, where the percentage of females in the total population amounted to 51.3 per cent. A statistical inhabitant of Podlasie was 37.7 years old, whereas in 2008 – 37.5 years old. The latest population projection predict consistent decrease in the population in Podlaskie Voivodeship. In the next 26 years it will decrease by 117 thousand persons due to the aging of the population.

Economy


The Gross domestic product (GDP) of the province was around 11 billion euros in 2018, accounting for 2.2% of Polish economic output. GDP per capita adjusted for purchasing power was €15,200 or 50% of the EU average in the same year. The GDP per employee was 57% of the EU average. Podlaskie Voivodship is the province with the 5th lowest GDP per capita in Poland.[9]

Transportation


Culture


Podlaskie is the most diverse of all Polish voivodships. The area has been inhabited for centuries by members of different nations and religions: Poles, Jews, Belarusians, Lithuanians, Ukrainians, Rusyns, Romani, Lipka Tatars and Filippians.

Many places of religious worship remain:

Historic sites


Middle Ages

Renaissance

Baroque

Classicism

19th century

Economy


The following are general economic indicators for Podlaskie Voivodeship:[10]

  1. Population (as of 30 September 2009) - 1,190,735
  2. Average paid employment in enterprise sector (November 2009) - 95896
  3. Average monthly gross wages and salaries in enterprise sector (November 2009) - 2,813.05 zł
  4. Unemployment rate (as of the end of November 2009) - 12,0%
  5. Dwellings completed in November 2009 - 661
  6. Procurement of milk (November 2009) - 126.8 mln l
  7. National economy entities from the REGON register, excluding persons tending private farms (as of the end of November 2009) - 89,654

According to REGON register in the year 2002 there were around 95 thousand companies registered in Podlaskie region (97% of them in private sector), dealing with;

Agriculture

Arable land constitutes around 60% of the total area of the region – most of which is ploughland (around 40%), forests, meadows and pastures. Over 120 000 farms are registered, roughly half of which are small farms of 1–5 ha and medium-sized farms of 5–10 ha. The smaller farms prefer intensive production (gardening, orcharding), whereas the larger ones engage in cattle and crop production. The cattle-raising farms are mainly oriented towards milk production.

The natural conditions of the region are conducive to the development of organic growing, which at present is practised by around 100 farms. Over 600 farms in the region offer agritourist services.[11]

Government


The voivodeship's seat is the city of Białystok. Like all voivodeships, it has a government-appointed Provincial Governor[12] (Polish: wojewoda), as well as an elected Regional Assembly (sejmik) and of the executive elected by that assembly, headed by the voivodeship marshal (marszałek województwa). Administrative powers and competences are statutorily divided between these authorities.

Cities and towns

The voivodeship contains 40 cities and towns. These are listed below in descending order of population (according to official figures for 2006[13]

  1. Białystok (295,210)
  2. Suwałki (69,234)
  3. Łomża (63,572)
  4. Augustów (30,054)
  5. Bielsk Podlaski (26,876)
  6. Zambrów (22,700)
  7. Grajewo (22,651)
  8. Hajnówka (22,072)
  9. Sokółka (18,888)
  10. Łapy (16,583)
  11. Siemiatycze (15,169)
  12. Kolno (10,751)
  13. Mońki (10,455)
  14. Czarna Białostocka (9,596)
  15. Wysokie Mazowieckie (9,257)
  16. Wasilków (8,967)
  17. Dąbrowa Białostocka (6,147)
  18. Sejny (5,934)
  19. Choroszcz (5,416)
  20. Ciechanowiec (4,898)
  21. Supraśl (4,578)
  22. Brańsk (3,794)
  23. Szczuczyn (3,564)
  24. Michałowo (3,343)
  25. Knyszyn (2,835)
  26. Krynki (2,709)
  27. Czyżew (2,670)
  28. Lipsk (2,498)
  29. Stawiski (2,442)
  30. Zabłudów (2,400)
  31. Szepietowo (c. 2,400)
  32. Suchowola (2,243)
  33. Drohiczyn (2,086)
  34. Nowogród (2,014)
  35. Goniądz (1,910)
  36. Jedwabne (1,901)
  37. Tykocin (1,893)
  38. Rajgród (1,673)
  39. Kleszczele (1,432)
  40. Suraż (982)

See also


External links


References











Categories: Podlaskie Voivodeship




Information as of: 08.06.2020 10:58:32 CEST

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