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Taiwanese Braille




Taiwanese Braille
Type
LanguagesStandard Mandarin
Parent systems
Night writing
Print basis
Zhuyin

Taiwanese Braille is the braille script used in Taiwan for Taiwanese Mandarin (Guoyu).[1] Although based marginally on international braille, the majority of consonants have been reassigned;[2] also, like Chinese Braille, Taiwanese Braille is a semi-syllabary.

An example is,

ㄨㄛ ˊ ˇ ㄧㄢ ˇ ˋ ˋ ˋ
guó diǎn hào

Contents

Charts


Initials

Zhuyin
Pinyin b p m f d t n l g k h j q x zh ch sh r z c s
Braille

The braille letters for zhuyin/pinyin ㄍ g (/k/), ㄘ c (/tsʰ/), and ㄙ s (/s/) double for the alveolo-palatal consonantsj (/tɕ/), ㄑ q (/tɕʰ/), and ㄒ x (/ɕ/).[3] The latter are followed by close front vowels, namely ㄧ i (/i/) and ㄩ ü (/y/), so the distinction between g, c, s (or z, k, h) and j, q, x in zhuyin and pinyin is redundant.

Medial + rime

Each medial + rime in zhuyin is written with a single letter in braille.

Zhuyin /ㄦ
Pinyin -i/er a o e ê ai ei ao ou an en ang eng
Braille
Zhuyin ㄧㄚ ㄧㄛ ㄧㄝ ㄧㄞ ㄧㄠ ㄧㄡ ㄧㄢ ㄧㄣ ㄧㄤ ㄧㄥ
Pinyin i ia io ie iai iao iu ian in iang ing
Braille
Zhuyin ㄨㄚ ㄨㄛ ㄨㄞ ㄨㄟ ㄨㄢ ㄨㄣ ㄨㄤ ㄨㄥ
Pinyin u ua uo uai ui uan un uang ong
Braille
Zhuyin ㄩㄝ ㄩㄢ ㄩㄣ ㄩㄥ
Pinyin ü üe üan ün iong
Braille

is used for both the empty rime -i ([ɨ]), which is not written in zhuyin, and the rime ㄦ er ([ɐɚ]). See for example 斯 () located above the word Daguerre in the image at right.

Tone Marks

Tone: 1 2 3 4 0
Zhuyin na ˊ ˇ ˋ ˙
Pinyin ˉ ˊ ˇ ˋ na
Braille

Tone is always marked.[4] This includes toneless syllables such as 了 le, rendered in the image above-right.

Punctuation marks

Punctuation[5]

Print
Braille
Print __ ﹏﹏ …… —— ——
Braille
Print 「 」 『 』 ( ) 〔 〕 { }
Braille

References


  1. ^ Not for Taiwanese Hokkien, which commonly goes by the name "Taiwanese"
  2. ^ Only p m d n g c a e ê ü (from p m d n k j ä è dropped-e ü) approximate the French norm. Other letters have been reassigned so that the sets of letters in groups such as d t n l and g k h are similar in shape.
  3. ^ [sic] One might expect ㄐ j (/tɕ/) to pair with ㄗ z (/ts/), by analogy with the others. Compare here , where the character 學 xué is rendered "süé". Historically it could have been either. The principal behind the assignments seems to be that, of the historically appropriate pairs of letters g~z, k~c, and h~s, the letter with the fewer dots is used for j, q, x.
  4. ^ http://www.languagehat.com/archives/003051.php
  5. ^ 萬明美, 2001, 「視障教育」, 五南圖書出版股份有限公司, p. 74 ff

External links





Categories: Innovative braille scripts | Transcription of Chinese | French-ordered braille scripts



Source: Wikipedia - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiwanese Braille (Authors [History])    License : CC-by-sa-3.0


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