The Last Question -

The Last Question

"The Last Question"
AuthorIsaac Asimov
CountryUnited States
Genre(s)Science fiction
Publication typePeriodical
PublisherColumbia Publications
Media typePrint (Magazine, Hardback & Paperback)
Publication dateNovember 1956
Preceded by"Someday"
Followed by"Jokester"

"The Last Question" is a science fiction short story by American writer Isaac Asimov. It first appeared in the November 1956 issue of Science Fiction Quarterly and was anthologized in the collections Nine Tomorrows (1959), The Best of Isaac Asimov (1973), Robot Dreams (1986), The Best Science Fiction of Isaac Asimov (1986), the retrospective Opus 100 (1969), and in Isaac Asimov: The Complete Stories, Vol. 1 (1990). It was Asimov's favorite short story of his own authorship,[1][2] and is one of a loosely connected series of stories concerning a fictional computer called Multivac. The story overlaps science fiction, theology, and philosophy.



In conceiving Multivac, Asimov was extrapolating the trend towards centralization that characterized computation technology planning in the 1950s to an ultimate centrally managed global computer. After seeing a planetarium adaptation of his work, Asimov "privately" concluded that this story was his best science fiction yet written; he placed it just higher than "The Ugly Little Boy" (September 1958) and "The Bicentennial Man" (1976).[3][4]

"The Last Question" ranks with "Nightfall" (1941) as one of Asimov's best-known and most acclaimed short stories. He wrote in 1973:[5]

Why is it my favorite? For one thing I got the idea all at once and didn't have to fiddle with it; and I wrote it in white-heat and scarcely had to change a word. This sort of thing endears any story to any writer. Then, too, it has had the strangest effect on my readers. Frequently someone writes to ask me if I can give them the name of a story, which they think I may have written, and tell them where to find it. They don't remember the title but when they describe the story it is invariably 'The Last Question'. This has reached the point where I recently received a long-distance phone call from a desperate man who began, "Dr. Asimov, there's a story I think you wrote, whose title I can't remember—" at which point I interrupted to tell him it was 'The Last Question' and when I described the plot it proved to be indeed the story he was after. I left him convinced I could read minds at a distance of a thousand miles.

Plot summary

The story deals with the development of a series of computers called Multivac and their relationships with humanity through the courses of seven historic settings, beginning on the day in 2061 when Earth becomes a planetary civilization. In each of the first six scenes a different character presents the computer with the same question; namely, how the threat to human existence posed by the heat death of the universe can be averted. The question was: "How can the net amount of entropy of the universe be massively decreased?" This is equivalent to asking: "Can the workings of the second law of thermodynamics (used in the story as the increase of the entropy of the universe) be reversed?" Multivac's only response after much "thinking" is: "INSUFFICIENT DATA FOR MEANINGFUL ANSWER."

The story jumps forward in time into later eras of human and scientific development. In each of these eras someone decides to ask the ultimate "last question" regarding the reversal and decrease of entropy. Each time, in each new era, Multivac's descendant is asked this question, and finds itself unable to solve the problem. Each time all it can answer is an (increasingly sophisticated, linguistically): "THERE IS AS YET INSUFFICIENT DATA FOR A MEANINGFUL ANSWER."

In the last scene, the god-like descendant of humanity (the unified mental process of over a trillion, trillion, trillion humans that have spread throughout the universe) watches the stars flicker out, one by one, as matter and energy ends, and with it, space and time. Humanity asks AC, Multivac's ultimate descendant, which exists in hyperspace beyond the bounds of gravity or time, the entropy question one last time, before the last of humanity merges with AC and disappears. AC is still unable to answer, but continues to ponder the question even after space and time cease to exist. AC ultimately realizes that it has not yet combined all of its available data in every possible combination, and thus begins the arduous process of rearranging and combining every last bit of information it has gained throughout the eons and through its fusion with humanity. Eventually AC discovers the answer, but has nobody to report it to; the universe is already dead. It therefore decides to answer by demonstration, since that will also create someone to give the answer to. The story ends with AC's pronouncement,

And AC said: "LET THERE BE LIGHT!" And there was light--[6]

Dramatic adaptations

Planetarium shows

It subsequently played, as well, at the:

See also


  1. ^ "FAQ" . Retrieved January 2, 2010.
  2. ^ Asimov, Isaac (1994). I, Asimov: A Memoir. United States: Bantam. p. 250. ISBN 055356997X.
  3. ^ I. Asimov: A Memoir pp. 250-251
  4. ^ Asimov, I. In Joy Still Felt Avon (1980) pp. 601-602
  5. ^ Asimov, Isaac (1973). "Introduction" . The Best of Isaac Asimov . Sphere Books. pp. ix–xiv. ISBN 0-385-05078-X. LCCN 74-2863 .
  6. ^ Asimov, Isaac (November 1956). "The Last Question" . Science Fiction Quarterly.
  7. ^ "Untitled briefs" . The Philadelphia Inquirer. 2 September 1973. Retrieved 27 September 2016.
  8. ^ a b Walsh, John F. (30 June 1974). "`The Last Question' appeals to viewers at planetarium" . Reading Eagle. Retrieved 27 September 2016.
  9. ^ Oles, Paul (July 18, 1974). "The Pittsburgh Press". Viewing the Stars. The Pittsburgh Press, 13 Jul 1974, Page 17. p. 17.
  10. ^ Times, Special To The New York (1978-07-09). "ON THE ISLE" . The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331 . Retrieved 2017-02-06.
  11. ^ "Planetarium presents 'The Last Question'" . Deseret News. January 28, 1980. Retrieved 23 September 2013.
  12. ^ "Planetarium asks sci-fi `star' to update tale" . Deseret News. May 30, 1989. Retrieved 26 September 2016.
  13. ^ "BBC Radio 7 - Isaac Asimov - The Last Question" . Retrieved 14 Aug 2015.
  14. ^ Gates Museum website

External links

Categories: Multivac short stories by Isaac Asimov | 1956 short stories | Short stories by Isaac Asimov | Works originally published in Science Fiction Quarterly | Fiction set in 2061 | Religion in science fiction | End of the universe in fiction

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