Tibetan pinyin - en.LinkFang.org

Tibetan pinyin




The SASM/GNC/SRC romanization of Tibetan, commonly known as Tibetan pinyin or ZWPY (Chinese: 藏文拼音, Zàngwén Pīnyīn, "Tibetan Spelling"), is the official transcription system for the Tibetan language in the People's Republic of China for personal names and place names.[1] It is based on pronunciation of China National Radio's Tibetan Radio pronunciation,[1] which is the Lhasa dialect of Standard Tibetan and reflects the pronunciation[citation needed] except that it does not mark tone. It is used within China[citation needed] as an alternative to the Wylie transliteration for writing Tibetan in the Latin script.[citation needed] Within academic circles, Wylie transliteration (with a v replacing the apostrophe) is more commonly used.

Contents

Overview



Onsets overview

Independent onsets in the initial syllable of a word are transcribed as follows:

ཀ་ ཁ་
ག་
ང་ ཅ་ ཆ་
ཇ་
ཉ་ ཏ་ ཐ་
ད་
ན་ པ་ ཕ་
བ་
མ་ ཙ་ ཚ་
ཛ་
ཝ་ ཞ་
ཤ་
ཟ་
ས་
ཡ་ ར་ ལ་ ཧ་ ཀྱ་ ཁྱ་
གྱ་
ཧྱ་ ཀྲ་ ཁྲ་
གྲ་
ཧྲ་ ལྷ་ རྷ་
g k ng j q ny d t n b p m z c w x s y r l h gy ky hy zh ch sh lh rh

For more general case, see #Onsets.

Vowels and final consonant

The 17 vowels of the Lhasa dialect are represented in as follows:

IPA Tibetan
pinyin
IPA Tibetan
pinyin
i i ĩ in
e ê en
ɛ ai/ä ɛ̃ ain/än
a a ã an
u u ũ un
o ô õ on
ɔ o ɔ̃ ǒn
y ü ün
ø oi/ö ø̃ oin/ön

Ending a syllable, -r is usually not pronounced, but it lengthens the preceding vowel. In the same place, -n usually nasalises the preceding vowel. Consonants at the end of a syllable are transcribed as follows:

IPA Tibetan
pinyin
ʔ̞ b/•
ʔ g/—
r r
m m
ŋ ng

Single syllable orthography



The tone of a syllable depends mostly on its initial consonant. In this table, each initial is given in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) with the vowel a and a tone mark to present tone register (high/low).

Onsets

Below is a comprehensive transcription table of onsets of an initial syllable of a word. If the syllable to transcribe is not the first syllable of a word, see #Onset variation.

IPA Wylie transliteration Tibetan pinyin
p, sp, dp, lp b
rb, sb, sbr b
mpà lb, ’b b
pʰá ph, ’ph p
pʰà b p
rm, sm, dm, smr m
m, mr m
w[note 1], db, b w
t, rt, lt, st, tw, gt, bt, brt, blt, bst, bld d
ntá lth d
rd, sd, gd, bd, brd, bsd d
ntà zl, bzl, ld, md, ’d d
tʰá th, mth, ’th t
tʰà d, dw t
rn, sn, gn, brn, bsn, mn n
n n
kl, gl, bl, rl, sl, brl, bsl l
l, lw l
l̥á lh lh
tsá ts, rts, sts, rtsw, stsw, gts, bts, brts, bsts z
tsà rdz, gdz, brdz z
ntsà mdz, ’dz z
tsʰá tsh, tshw, mtsh, ’tsh c
tsʰà dz c
s, sr, sw, gs, bs, bsr s
z, zw, gz, bz s
ʈʂá kr, rkr, lkr, skr, tr, pr, lpr, spr, dkr, dpr, bkr, bskr, bsr zh
ʈʂà rgr, lgr, sgr, dgr, dbr, bsgr, rbr, lbr, sbr zh
ɳʈʂà mgr, ’gr, ’dr, ’br zh
ʈʂʰá khr, thr, phr, mkhr, ’khr, ’phr ch
ʈʂʰà gr, dr, br, grw ch
ʂá hr sh
r, rw r
r̥á rh rh
ky, rky, lky, sky, dky, bky, brky, bsky gy
rgy, lgy, sgy, dgy, bgy, brgy, bsgy gy
ɲcà mgy, ’gy gy
cʰá khy, mkhy, ’khy ky
cʰà gy ky
çá hy hy
tɕá c, cw, gc, bc, lc, py, lpy, spy, dpy j
tɕà rby, lby, sby, rj, gj, brj, dby j
ɲtɕà lj, mj, ’j, ’by j
tɕʰá ch, mch, ’ch, phy, ’phy q
tɕʰà j, by q
ɕá sh, shw, gsh, bsh x
ɕà zh, zhw, gzh, bzh x
ɲá rny, sny, gny, brny, bsny, mny, nyw, rmy, smy ny
ɲà ny, my ny
g.y y
y y
k, rk, lk, sk, kw, dk, bk, brk, bsk g
rg, lg, sg, dg, bg, brg, bsg g
ŋkà lg, mg, ’g g
kʰá kh, khw, mkh, ’kh k
kʰà g, gw k
ŋá rng, lng, sng, dng, brng, bsng, mng ng
ŋà ng ng
ʔá —, db
ʔ̞à
h, hw h

Rimes

Below is a comprehensive transcription table of rimes of a final syllable of a word, with IPA transcription for the Lhasa dialect.[2] If the syllable to transcribe is not the final syllable of a word, see Coda variation.

Take "ཨ" to be the consonant (not "◌").

ཨ། ཨའུ། ཨར། ཨལ།
ཨའི།
ཨད།
ཨས།
ཨག།
ཨགས།
ཨབ།
ཨབས།
ཨང༌།
ཨངས།
ཨམ།
ཨམས།
ཨན།
a au ar ai/ä ag ab ang am ain/än
[a] [au̯] [aː] [ɛ:] [ɛ] [aʡ] [əʡ̆] [aŋ] [am] [ɛ̃ː]
ཨི། ཨིའུ།
ཨེའུ།
ཨིར། ཨིལ།
ཨའི།
ཨིད།
ཨིས།
ཨིག།
ཨིགས།
ཨིབ།
ཨིབས།
ཨིང༌།
ཨིངས།
ཨིམ།
ཨིམས།
ཨིན།
i iu ir i ig ib ing im in
[i] [iu̯] [iː] [iː] [i] [iʡ] [ɪʡ̆] [iŋ] [im] [ĩː]
ཨུ། ཨུར། ཨུལ།
ཨུའི།
ཨུད།
ཨུས།
ཨུག།
ཨུགས།
ཨུབ།
ཨུབས།
ཨུང༌།
ཨུངས།
ཨུམ།
ཨུམས།
ཨུན།
u ur ü ug ub ung um ün
[u] [uː] [yː] [y] [uʡ] [ʊʡ̆] [uŋ] [um] [ỹː]
ཨེ། ཨེར། ཨེལ།
ཨེའི།
ཨེད།
ཨེས།
ཨེག།
ཨེགས།
ཨེབ།
ཨེབས།
ཨེང༌།
ཨེངས།
ཨེམ།
ཨེམས།
ཨེན།
ê êr ê êg êb êng êm ên
[e] [eː] [eː] [e] [eʡ] [eʡ̆] [eŋ] [em] [ẽː]
ཨོ། ཨོར། ཨོལ།
ཨོའི།
ཨོད།
ཨོས།
ཨོག།
ཨོགས།
ཨོབ།
ཨོབས།
ཨོང༌།
ཨོངས།
ཨོམ།
ཨོམས།
ཨོན།
ô ôr oi/ö ôg ôb ông ôm oin/ön
[o] [oː] [øː] [ø] [oʡ] [oʡ̆] [oŋ] [om] [ø̃ː]

Intersyllable influence



Onset variation

Bare low aspirated variation

Coda variation

Ngoinjug of next syllable
Prenasalization of next syllable

Examples

Sometimes there is intersyllablic influence:

Tibetan script Tibetan pinyin Wylie (EWTS) Lhasa IPA Explanation
མ་ཕམ་གཡུ་མཚོ། Mapam Yumco ma-pham g.yu-mtsho [mapʰam jumtsʰo] forward shift of prefix མ
ཁྲ་འབྲུག་དགོན་པ། Changzhug Gönba khra-’brug dgon-pa [ʈ͡ʂʰaŋʈ͡ʂ˭uk k˭ø̃p˭a]

Examples



Tibetan Script Wylie Tibetan pinyin Tournadre other transcriptions
གཞིས་ཀ་རྩེ Gzhis-ka-rtse Xigazê Zhikatse Shigatse, Shikatse
བཀྲ་ཤིས་ལྷུན་པོ་ Bkra-shis-lhun-po Zhaxilhünbo Trashilhünpo Tashilhunpo, Tashilhümpo, etc.
འབྲས་སྤུང་ ’Bras-spung Zhaibung Dräpung Drebung
ཆོས་ཀྱི་རྒྱལ་མཚན་ Chos-kyi Rgyal-mtshan Qoigyi Gyaicain Chökyi Gyältshän Choekyi Gyaltsen
ཐུབ་བསྟན་རྒྱ་མཚོ་ Thub-bstan Rgya-mtsho Tubdain Gyaco Thuptän Gyatsho Thubten Gyatso, Thubtan Gyatso, Thupten Gyatso

See also



Notes



  1. ^ as in Namjagbarwa

References



Citations

  1. ^ a b "少数民族语地名汉语拼音字母音译转写法" [Transliteration of Chinese Pinyin Letters of Place Names in Minority Languages] (in Chinese). Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China. 2012-06-29. Retrieved 11 January 2020. 少数民族语地名汉语拼音字母音译转写法...(三)藏语...说明:(1)藏语地名的音译转写,以中央人民广播电台藏语广播的语音为依靠。
  2. ^ Brush, Beaumont. "The Status of Coronal in the Historical Development of Lhasa Tibetan Rhymes" (PDF). SIL. Retrieved 9 May 2015.

Sources




Categories: Romanization of Tibetan | Pinyin



Source: Wikipedia - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tibetan pinyin (Authors [History])    License : CC-by-sa-3.0


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