Timeline of the Latin Empire
The timeline of the Latin Empire is a chronological list of events of the history of the Latin Empire—the crusader state that developed on the ruins of the Byzantine Empire after the Fourth Crusade in the 13th century.
Towards the Fourth Crusade
- The Seljuks seize large parts of Anatolia, taking advantage of Byzantine civil wars.
- Roussel de Bailleul, a Norman mercenary previously in Byzantine service, rules western Anatolia. The Byzantines could terminate his rule only with Seljuk support.
- 21 February. Robert Guiscard occupies the Byzantine town of Dyrrachium, or Durazzo, on the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea. He continues his military campaign towards Constantinople along the Via Egnatia.
- May. The Byzantine Emperor Alexios I Komnenos grants privileges to the Venetian merchants, including their exemption from specified taxes, in return for Venetian naval support against the Normans.
- The Venetians and the Byzantines force the Normans to abandon the Byzantine Empire.
- Winter. Tens of thousands of crusaders march across the Byzantine Empire towards the Holy Land. Their conflicts with the Byzantines occasionally end with skirmishes. All crusader leaders, but Raymond IV, Count of Toulouse, swear fealty to Alexios I, promising to return to the Byzantines all lands that the Seljuks conquered from the Byzantines.
- 3 June. The crusaders capture Antioch, a city that the Seljuks seized from the Byzantines in 1083.
- November. The crusader leaders acknowledge the right of Robert Guiscard's son, Bohemond, to rule Antioch, ignoring their oath to Emperor Alexios.
- Alexios I grants trading privileges to the Pisans, reducing custom duties and allowing them to establish a colony in Constantinople.
- Alexios I's successor, John II Komnenos, does not confirm the Venetians' trading privileges, stating that they abused them.
- August. Emperor John II restores the Venetians' trading privileges.
- Spring. John II conquers the Cilician plains from Antioch and replaces the Catholic bishops with Orthodox prelates.
- Fearing of an anti-Byzantine French–Norman coalition, Emperor Manuel I Komnenos tries to convince King Louis VII of France to avoid Constantinople during his march to the Holy Land, but Louis VII ignores him. Godefroy de la Roche Vanneau, Bishop of Langres, urges Louis VII to conquer Constantinople in retaliation for the dismissal of the Catholic bishops in Cilicia and for the Byzantine attacks against Antioch, but the King refuses. Hunger forces the French crusaders to seize food from the Greeks in western Anatolia by force, provoking their counter-attacks. The Byzantine fleet carries Louis VII and his nobles to Antioch, but the Seljuks annihilate most common soldiers who are left behind in Anatolia. The crusaders blame the Byzantines for the failure of the Second Crusade.
- Manuel I grants trading privileges to the Genoese.
- Street fights among the Genoese, Pisans and Venetians in Constantinople. Manuel I bans the Genoese and Pisans from the empire, enabling the Venetians to monopolize the foreign trade.
- Manuel I allows the Genoese and Pisans to return to Constantinople. After the Venetians destroy the new Genoese quarter, Manuel I's orders the imprisonment of all Venetians and the confiscation of their ships and goods. The Venetian fleet plunders Aegean islands.
- Manuel I's widow, Maria of Antioch, assumes regency for their eleven-year-old son, Alexios II Komnenos. Her favoritism towards the Genoese and Pisans alienates the Byzantines. After Manuel I's cousin, Andronikos Komnenos, rose up against her in Paphlagonia, a popular uprising broke out in Constantinople. The mob massacre Pisan and Genoese merchants and Catholic priests, including the papal legate, Cardinal John.
- September. Andronikos Komnenos is crowned Alexios II's co-emperor, but he soon had Alexios II murdered. He allows the Venetians to return to Constantinople.
- Emperor Andronikos I concludes an alliance with Saladin, Sultan of Egypt and Syria.
- Manuel I's nephew, Isaac Komnenos rose up against Andronikos I and seizes Cyprus. Isaac Komnenos assumes the title emperor.
- Emperor Isaac II renews the alliance with Saladin.
- Isaac II sends his fleet to recapture Cyprus. The Sicilian admiral Margaritus of Brindisi attacks the fleet and seizes eighty Byzantine ships (four-fifths of the imperial fleet).
- The Holy Roman Emperor, Frederick I Barbarossa, and Emperor Isaac II distrust each other during Frederick's crusade. Frederick is suspicious about Isaac's negotiations with Saladin and Isaac fears of a German attack on Constantinople. The German crusaders temporarily capture Philippopolis and Adrianople in Thrace before the two emperors conclude a peace treaty.
- 2 September. Richard I and Saladin sign a three-year truce. The crusader states survive in the Outremer and the Christian pilgrims are allowed to visit the holy places, but Jerusalem remains under Muslim rule.
- Good Friday. The Holy Roman Emperor, Henry VI, takes the crusading oath without waiting for Pope Celestine III's appeal for a new crusade. Henry threatens the Byzantines with an invasion if they do not contribute with 5,000 pounds of gold to his crusade.
- 8 April. Isaac II is dethroned, blinded and imprisoned by his brother, Alexios III Angelos.
- Henry VI agrees to reduce the Byzantine contribution to 1,000 pounds of gold. Alexios III levies a special tax, the "German Tax", to cover the expenditure.
- 28 September. Henry VI dies before departing for the crusade.
- Summer. The crusader leaders meet at Compiègne to make preparations for the crusade.
- April. Doge Enrico Dandolo concludes a treaty with the crusader leaders' delegates. The Venetians contract to build a fleet to carry 4,500 knights, 9,000 squires and 20,000 footsoldiers for 85,000 marks. The crusaders and the Venetians also agree that they will divide all conquered lands equally between them.
- May. Innocent III forbids the crusaders and the Venetians to invade Christian lands when confirming their treaty. Theobald of Champagne, the designated commander of the crusading army, dies.
- August. Boniface I, Marquess of Montferrat is elected as the new commander of the crusading army.
- Autumn. Isaac II'son, Alexios Angelos, escapes from prison and a Pisan ship carries him to Italy.
- Winter. The young Alexios Angelos meets with his brother-in-law, Philip of Swabia, and Boniface of Montferrat. He seeks their support to regain his father's imperial throne from Alexios III.
- Alexios III concludes a peace treaty with the younger brother and successor of Theodore and Asen, Kaloyan of Bulgaria, establishing the Balkan Mountains as the frontier between the two countries.
- Early. Alexios Angelos cannot convince Innocent III to acknowledge his claim to the Byzantine throne.
- 24 June. The Venetians complete the crusaders' fleet, but the crusader leaders can only pay 60% of the agreed price, because many crusaders departed for the Holy Land from other ports. Enrico Dandolo proposes a compromise, offering to delay the payment of the missing amount in return for the crusaders' support to conquer Zadar, a Dalmatian town accepting the suzerainty of Emeric, King of Hungary.
- 22 July. The crusader leaders accept Dandolo's offer. They also agree to invade Egypt after wintering in Dalmatia.
- 1 October. Innocent III prohibits the crusaders to besiege Christian towns, particularly Zadar.
- 16 November. Innocent III urges Alexios III to achieve the Church union and acknowledge the papal supremacy.
- 24 November. The crusaders capture and sack Zadar.
- c. 15 December. Innocent III forgives the crusaders for their attack on Zadar, but refuses to absolve the Venetians. The papal legate, Peter of Capua, departs the crusade for the Holy Land.
- 1 January. Alexios Angelos's envoys offer 200,000 marks, 10,000 soldiers and the Church union in return for the crusaders' assistance against Alexios III. The crusaders (or Latins) accept the offer.
- April. Alexios Angelos joins the crusaders at Zadar.
- 6 July. Crusaders capture Galata and the Venetian fleet forces an entry to the Golden Horn.
- 17–18 July. The crusaders attack Constantinople and capture some towers. Alexios III fleeds the city. Isaack II is released and restored to the throne. He confirms his son's promises.
- 1 August. The younger Alexios is crowned his father's co-emperor as Alexios IV. He announces the Church union, but he can pay only 100,000 marks to the crusaders. He makes a new agreement with the crusaders, promising further payments to them in return for their support against Alexios III who still holds Thrace.
- Autumn. Clashes between the crusaders and the Greeks in Constantinople. The Catholics flee from Constantinople to seek asylum in the crusaders' camp. Alexios III's son-in-law, Theodore Laskaris flees to Bithynia (in western Anatolia).
- January–February. Byzantine aristocrats and commoners are plotting against Isaac II and Alexios IV. Isaac II dies and the discontented Byzantines elect the crusaders' enemy, Alexios Doukas, or Alexios V, emperor. The new emperor had Alexios IV murdered. The new emperor refuses to pay the sum that Alexios IV promised to the crusaders and sends fire-ships to destroy their fleet.
- Spring. Greek landowners of the Opsician Theme acknowledge Theodore Laskaris as Alexios III's lieutenant.
Categories: Timelines by country | Latin Empire
Information as of:
12.07.2021 08:24:39 CEST
Source: Wikipedia (Authors [History]) License : CC-BY-SA-3.0
Changes: All pictures and most design elements which are related to those, were removed. Some Icons were replaced by FontAwesome-Icons. Some templates were removed (like “article needs expansion) or assigned (like “hatnotes”). CSS classes were either removed or harmonized.
Wikipedia specific links which do not lead to an article or category (like “Redlinks”, “links to the edit page”, “links to portals”) were removed. Every external link has an additional FontAwesome-Icon. Beside some small changes of design, media-container, maps, navigation-boxes, spoken versions and Geo-microformats were removed.
Please note: Because the given content is automatically taken from Wikipedia at the given point of time, a manual verification was and is not possible. Therefore LinkFang.org does not guarantee the accuracy and actuality of the acquired content. If there is an Information which is wrong at the moment or has an inaccurate display please feel free to contact us: email.