Vehicle identification number

A vehicle identification number (VIN) is a unique code, including a serial number, used by the automotive industry to identify individual motor vehicles, towed vehicles, motorcycles, scooters and mopeds, as defined in ISO 3779 (content and structure) and ISO 4030 (location and attachment).

VINs were first used in 1954 in the United States.[1] From 1954 to 1981, there was no accepted standard for these numbers, so different manufacturers used different formats.

In 1954, at the request of the US government, the US auto manufacturers and the Automobile Manufacturers Association were involved in the creation of the new, standardized vehicle identification numbering system named the Vehicle Identification Number (VIN) with an agreed upon digit sequence and concealed chassis markings of this VIN. Up to that time, states used the engine number to register and title cars and trucks which became a problem if the engine was replaced which was fairly common at the time.[citation needed]

In 1981, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration of the United States standardized the format.[1] It required all on-road vehicles sold to contain a 17-character VIN, which does not include the letters O (o), I (i), and Q (q) (to avoid confusion with numerals 0, 1, and 9).

There are vehicle history services in several countries that help potential car owners use VINs to find vehicles that are defective or have been written off.



There are at least four competing standards used to calculate the VIN.


Modern VINs are based on two related standards, originally issued by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in 1979 and 1980: ISO 3779[4] and ISO 3780,[5] respectively. Compatible but different implementations of these ISO standards have been adopted by the European Union and the United States, respectively.[6]

The VIN comprises the following sections:

Standard 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
ISO 3779 World manufacturer identifier Vehicle descriptor section Vehicle identifier section
European Union[7]

more than 500 vehicles/year

World manufacturer identifier Indication of "the general characteristics of the vehicle" Indication that provides "clear identification of a particular vehicle"
European Union[7]

500 or fewer vehicles/year

World manufacturer identifier 9 Indication of "the general characteristics of the vehicle" Indication that provides "clear identification of a particular vehicle"
North America

more than 2,000 vehicles/year

World manufacturer identifier Vehicle attributes Check digit Model year Plant code Sequential number
North America

2,000 or fewer vehicles/year

World manufacturer identifier 9 Vehicle attributes Check digit Model year Plant code Manufacturer identifier Sequential number

World manufacturer identifier

The first three characters uniquely identify the manufacturer of the vehicle using the world manufacturer identifier or WMI code. A manufacturer who builds fewer than 1000 vehicles per year uses a 9 as the third digit, and the 12th, 13th and 14th position of the VIN for a second part of the identification. Some manufacturers use the third character as a code for a vehicle category (e.g., bus or truck), a division within a manufacturer, or both. For example, within 1G (assigned to General Motors in the United States), 1G1 represents Chevrolet passenger cars; 1G2, Pontiac passenger cars; and 1GC, Chevrolet trucks.

The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) in the US assigns WMIs to countries and manufacturers.[8]

The first character of the WMI is the region in which the manufacturer is located. In practice, each is assigned to a country of manufacture, although in Europe the country where the continental headquarters is located can assign the WMI to all vehicles produced in that region (Example: Opel/Vauxhall cars whether produced in Germany, Spain, the United Kingdom or Poland carry a WMI of W0L because Adam Opel AG is based in Rüsselsheim, Germany).

In the notation below, assume that letters precede numbers and that zero is the last number. For example, 8X–82 denotes the range 8X, 8Y, 8Z, 81, 82, excluding 80.[8]

Country or region codes

A–H = Africa J–R = Asia S–Z = Europe 1–5 = North America 6–7 = Oceania 8–9 = South America

AA-AH South Africa
AJ-AN Cote d'Ivoire
AP-A0 unassigned
BA-BE Angola
BF-BK Kenya
BL-BR Tanzania
BS-B0 unassigned
CA-CE Benin
CF-CK Madagascar
CL-CR Tunisia
CS-C0 unassigned
DA-DE Egypt
DF-DK Morocco
DL-DR Zambia
DS-D0 unassigned
EA-EE Ethiopia
EF-EK Mozambique
EL-E0 unassigned
FA-FE Ghana
FF-FK Nigeria
FL-F0 unassigned
GA-G0 unassigned
HA-H0 unassigned

J Japan
KA-KE Sri Lanka
KF-KK Israel
KL-KR Korea (South)
KS-K0 Kazakhstan
L China (Mainland)
MA-ME,MZ India
MF-MK Indonesia
ML-MR Thailand
MS-M0 Myanmar
NA-NE Iran
NF-NK Pakistan
NL-NR Turkey
NS-N0 unassigned
PA-PE Philippines
PF-PK Singapore
PL-PR Malaysia
PS-P0 unassigned
RA-RE United Arab Emirates
RF-RK Taiwan
RL-RR Vietnam
RS-R0 Saudi Arabia

SA-SM United Kingdom
SN-ST Germany (formerly East Germany)
SU-SZ Poland
S1-S4 Latvia
S5-S0 unassigned
TA-TH Switzerland
TJ-TP Czech Republic
TR-TV Hungary
TW-T1 Portugal
T2-T0 unassigned
UA-UG unassigned
UH-UM Denmark
UN-UT Ireland
UU-UZ Romania
U1-U4 unassigned
U5-U7 Slovakia
U8-U0 unassigned
VA-VE Austria
VF-VR France
VS-VW Spain
VX-V2 Serbia
V3-V5 Croatia
V6-V0 Estonia
W Germany (formerly West Germany)
XA-XE Bulgaria
XF-XK Greece
XL-XR Netherlands
XS-XW Russia (former USSR)
XX-X2 Luxembourg
X3-X0 Russia
YA-YE Belgium
YF-YK Finland
YL-YR Malta
YS-YW Sweden
YX-Y2 Norway
Y3-Y5 Belarus
Y6-Y0 Ukraine
ZA-ZR Italy
ZS-ZW unassigned
ZX-Z2 Slovenia
Z3-Z5 Lithuania
Z6-Z0 unassigned

1, 4, or 5 United States
2 Canada
3A-3W Mexico
3X-37 Costa Rica
38-39 Cayman Islands
30 unassigned

6 Australia
7 New Zealand

8A-8E Argentina
8F-8K Chile
8L-8R Ecuador
8S-8W Peru
8X-82 Venezuela
82-82 Bolivia
83-80 unassigned
9A-9E Brazil
9F-9K Colombia
9L-9R Paraguay
9S-9W Uruguay
9X-92 Trinidad & Tobago
93–99 Brazil
90 unassigned

Vehicle descriptor section

The fourth to ninth positions in the VIN are the vehicle descriptor section or VDS. This is used, according to local regulations, to identify the vehicle type, and may include information on the automobile platform used, the model, and the body style. Each manufacturer has a unique system for using this field. Most manufacturers since the 1980s have used the eighth digit to identify the engine type whenever there is more than one engine choice for the vehicle. Example: for the 2007 Chevrolet Corvette, U is for a 6.0-liter V8 engine, and E is for a 7.0 L V8.

North American check digits

One element that is inconsistent is the use of position nine as a check digit, compulsory for vehicles in North America and China, but not Europe.

Vehicle identifier section

The 10th to 17th positions are used as the 'vehicle identifier section' (VIS). This is used by the manufacturer to identify the individual vehicle in question. This may include information on options installed or engine and transmission choices, but often is a simple sequential number. In North America, the last five digits must be numeric.

Model year encoding

One consistent element of the VIS is the 10th digit, which is required worldwide to encode the model year of the vehicle. Besides the three letters that are not allowed in the VIN itself (I, O and Q), the letters U and Z and the digit 0 are not used for the model year code. The year code is the model year for the vehicle.

The year 1980 was encoded by some manufacturers, especially General Motors and Chrysler, as "A" (since the 17-digit VIN was not mandatory until 1981, and the "A" or zero was in the manufacturer's pre-1981 placement in the VIN), yet Ford and AMC still used a zero for 1980. Subsequent years increment through the allowed letters, so that "Y" represents the year 2000. 2001 to 2009 are encoded as the digits 1 to 9, and subsequent years are encoded as "A", "B", "C", etc.

Code Year Code Year Code Year Code Year Code Year Code Year
A 1980 L 1990 Y 2000 A 2010 L = 2020 Y = 2030
B 1981 M 1991 1 2001 B 2011 M 2021 1 2031
C 1982 N 1992 2 2002 C 2012 N 2022 2 2032
D 1983 P 1993 3 2003 D 2013 P 2023 3 2033
E 1984 R 1994 4 2004 E 2014 R 2024 4 2034
F 1985 S 1995 5 2005 F 2015 S 2025 5 2035
G 1986 T 1996 6 2006 G 2016 T 2026 6 2036
H 1987 V 1997 7 2007 H 2017 V 2027 7 2037
J 1988 W 1998 8 2008 J 2018 W 2028 8 2038
K 1989 X 1999 9 2009 K 2019 X 2029 9 2039

On April 30, 2008, the US National Highway Traffic Safety Administration adopted a final rule amending 49 CFR Part 565, "so that the current 17 character vehicle identification number (VIN) system, which has been in place for almost 30 years, can continue in use for at least another 30 years", in the process making several changes to the VIN requirements applicable to all motor vehicles manufactured for sale in the United States. There are three notable changes to the VIN structure that affect VIN deciphering systems:

Plant code

Compulsory in North America and China is the use of the 11th character to identify the assembly plant at which the vehicle was built. Each manufacturer has its own set of plant codes.

Production number

In the United States and China, the 12th to 17th digits are the vehicle's serial or production number. This is unique to each vehicle, and every manufacturer uses its own sequence.

Check-digit calculation

A check-digit validation is used for all road vehicles sold in the United States and Canada.

When trying to validate a VIN with a check digit, first either (a) remove the check digit for the purpose of calculation or (b) use a weight of zero (see below) to cancel it out. The original value of the check digit is then compared with the calculated value. If the calculated value is 0–9, the check digit must match the calculated value. If the calculated value is 10, the check digit must be X. If the two values do not match (and there was no error in the calculation), then there is a mistake in the VIN. However, a match does not prove the VIN is correct, because there is still a 1/11 chance that any two distinct VINs have a matching check digit: for example, the valid VINs 5GZCZ43D13S812715 (correct with leading five) and SGZCZ43D13S812715 (incorrect with leading character "S"). The VINs in the Porsche image, WP0ZZZ99ZTS392124, and the GM-T body image, KLATF08Y1VB363636, do not pass the North American check-digit verification.

Transliterating the numbers

Transliteration consists of removing all of the letters, and replacing them with their appropriate numerical counterparts. These numerical alternatives (based on IBM's EBCDIC) are in the following chart. I, O, and Q are not allowed in a valid VIN; for this chart, they have been filled in with N/A (not applicable). Numerical digits use their own values.

Transliteration key: values for VIN decoding
A: 1 B: 2 C: 3 D: 4 E: 5 F: 6 G: 7 H: 8 N/A
J: 1 K: 2 L: 3 M: 4 N: 5 N/A P: 7 N/A R: 9
N/A S: 2 T: 3 U: 4 V: 5 W: 6 X: 7 Y: 8 Z: 9

S is 2, and not 1. There is no left-alignment linearity.

Weights used in calculation

The following is the weight factor for each position in the VIN. The 9th position is that of the check digit. It has been substituted with a 0, which will cancel it out in the multiplication step.

Weight factor table
Position 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
Weight 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 10 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2

Worked example

Consider the hypothetical VIN 1M8GDM9A_KP042788, where the underscore will be the check digit.

VIN 1 M 8 G D M 9 A K P 0 4 2 7 8 8
Value 1 4 8 7 4 4 9 1 0 2 7 0 4 2 7 8 8
Weight 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 10 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2
Products 28 48 35 16 12 18 10 18 56 24 10 28 24 16
  1. The VIN's value is calculated from the above transliteration table. This number is used in the rest of the calculation.
  2. Copy the weights from the above weight factor table.
  3. The products row is the result of the multiplication of the vertical columns: Value and Weight.
  4. The products (8, 28, 48, 35 ... 24, 16) are all added together to yield a sum, 351.
  5. Find the remainder after dividing by 11
    351 MOD 11 = 10
    351 ÷ 11 = 31 10/11
  6. The remainder is the check digit. If the remainder is 10, the check digit is X. In this example, the remainder is 10, so the check digit is transliterated as X.

With a check digit of X, the VIN 1M8GDM9A_KP042788 is written 1M8GDM9AXKP042788.

A VIN with straight-ones (seventeen consecutive 1s) has the nice feature that its check digit 1 matches the calculated value 1. This is because a value of one multiplied by 89 (sum of weights) is 89, and 89 divided by 11 is 8 with remainder ​111; thus 1 is the check digit. This is a way to test a VIN-check algorithm.

VIN scanning

VIN is printed on locations like bottom corner of the windshield on the driver’s side, under the bonnet next to latch, the front end of the vehicle frame and inside the door pillar on the driver’s side. VINs may be optically read with barcode scanners or digital cameras, or digitally read via OBD-II in newer vehicles. There are smartphone applications that can pass the VIN to websites to decode the VIN.

List of common WMI

The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) assigns the WMI (world manufacturer identifier) to countries and manufacturers. The following list shows a selection of world manufacturer codes.

WMI Country Manufacturer
AAV South Africa Volkswagen[9]
AHT South Africa Toyota[9]
AFA South Africa Ford
BF9 Kenya KIBO Motorcycles
CL9 Tunisia Wallyscar
JA Japan Mitsubishi
JAL Japan Isuzu
JC1 Japan Fiat Automobiles/Mazda
JD Japan Daihatsu Motor Co. Ltd.
JF1-JF3 Japan Subaru - Fuji Heavy Industries
JF4 Japan SAAB
JF5 Japan Pontiac
JHD, JHF, JHH Japan Hino[9]
JHL Japan Honda[9]
JHM Japan Honda[9]
JM0 Japan Mazda for Oceania export
JM1 Japan Mazda
JMB Japan Mitsubishi[9]
JM6 Japan Mazda[9]
JN Japan Nissan[9]
JS Japan Suzuki[9]
JT Japan Toyota[9]
JY Japan Yamaha[9]
KL South Korea Daewoo/GM Korea[9]
KMH South Korea Hyundai[9]
KN South Korea Kia[9]
KPT South Korea SsangYong[9]
L2C China Chery Jaguar Land Rover
L6T China Geely
LA6 China King Long
LB3 China Geely
LBE China Beijing Hyundai
LBV China BMW Brilliance
LC0 China BYD Industry
LDC China Dongfeng Peugeot-Citroën
LE4 China Beijing Benz
LFM China FAW Toyota
LFP China FAW Car
LFV China FAW-Volkswagen
LGB China Dongfeng Nissan
LGJ China Dongfeng Fengshen
LGW China Great Wall (Havel)
LGX China BYD Auto
LH1 China FAW Haima
LHG China Guangzhou Honda
LJ1 China JAC
LJD China Dongfeng Yueda Kia
LLV China Lifan
LMG China GAC Trumpchi
LPA China Changan PSA (DS Automobiles)
LS5 China Changan Suzuki
LSFA China SAIC Maxus
LSG China SAIC General Motors
LSV China SAIC Volkswagen
LTV China FAW Toyota (Tianjin)
LVG China GAC Toyota
LVH China Dongfeng Honda
LVR China Changan Mazda
LVS China Changan Ford
LVV China Chery
LWV China GAC Fiat
LZW China SAIC GM Wuling
LZY China Yutong
MA1 India Mahindra
MNT Thailand Nissan
MM0 Thailand Mazda
MMB Thailand Mitsubishi[9]
MRH Thailand Honda
MS0 Myanmar Kia
NMT Turkey Toyota
NM0 Turkey Ford Otosan
PL1 Malaysia Proton
PL8 Malaysia Hyundai Inokom
PLP Malaysia Subaru
PMH Malaysia Honda
PML Malaysia Hicom
PM1 Malaysia BMW
PM2 Malaysia Perodua
PM9 Malaysia Bufori
PMK Malaysia Honda Boon Siew
PMN Malaysia Modenas
PMV Malaysia Yamaha Hong Leong
PNA Malaysia Kia
PNA Malaysia Peugeot
PNV Malaysia Volvo Cars
PN1 Malaysia Toyota
PN8 Malaysia Nissan
PP1 Malaysia Mazda
PP3 Malaysia Hyundai
PPP Malaysia Suzuki
PR8 Malaysia Ford
SAB United Kingdom Optare
SAJ United Kingdom Jaguar
SAL United Kingdom Land Rover[9]
SAR United Kingdom Rover[9]
SAT United Kingdom Triumph[9]
SB1 United Kingdom Toyota[9]
SBM United Kingdom McLaren Automotive[9]
SCC United Kingdom Lotus Cars[9]
SCF United Kingdom Aston Martin Lagonda Limited[9]
SCE United Kingdom DeLorean
SFD United Kingdom Alexander Dennis
SFE United Kingdom Alexander Dennis (North America)
SHH United Kingdom Honda[9]
SHS United Kingdom Honda[9]
SJN United Kingdom Nissan[9]
SUD Poland Wielton
TCC Switzerland Micro Compact Car[9]
TEB UK/Switzerland Johnston sweeper (Bucher)
TMA Czech Republic Hyundai[9]
TMB Czech Republic Škoda[9]
TRU Hungary Audi[9]
TSM Hungary Suzuki[9]
U5Y Slovakia Kia[9]
UU Romania Dacia[9]
VA0 Austria ÖAF[9]
VBK Austria KTM[9]
VF1 France Renault[9]
VF2 France Renault[9]
VF3 France Peugeot[9]
VF4 France Talbot[9]
VF5 France Iveco Unic SA[9]
VF6 France Renault Trucks/Volvo[9]
VF7 France Citroën[9]
VF8 France Matra/Talbot/Simca[9]
VF9 France Bugatti[9]
VFE France IvecoBus
VNK France Toyota
VR1 France DS Automobiles
VSS Spain SEAT[9]
VS7 Spain Citroën
VV9 Spain Tauro Sport Auto
WAG Germany Neoplan[9]
WAU Germany Audi[9]
WAP Germany Alpina[9]
WBA Germany BMW[9]
WBS Germany BMW M[9]
WBX Germany BMW[9]
WDB Germany Mercedes-Benz[9]
WDC, WDD, WMX Germany DaimlerChrysler AG/Daimler AG[9]
WEB Germany EvoBus[9]
WF0 Germany Ford of Europe[9]
WJM Germany Iveco
WJR Germany Irmscher[9]
WKK Germany Karl Kässbohrer Fahrzeugwerke[9]
WMA Germany MAN[9]
WME Germany Smart[9]
WMW Germany Mini[9]
WP0 Germany Porsche car[9]
WP1 Germany[9] Porsche SUV
WUA Germany Quattro[9]
WVG Germany Volkswagen[9]
WVW Germany Volkswagen[9]
WV1 Germany Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles[9]
WV2 Germany Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles[9]
W09 Germany Ruf Automobile[9]
W0L Germany Opel/Vauxhall[9]
W0SV Germany Opel Special Vehicles[9]
XLR Netherlands DAF Trucks[9]
XTA Russia AvtoVAZ[9]
XTB Russia AZLK[9]
YK1 Finland Saab[9]
YS2 Sweden Scania, Södertälje[9]
YS3 Sweden Saab[9]
YS4 Sweden Scania, Katrineholm[9]
YTN Sweden Saab NEVS
YV1 Sweden Volvo Cars[9]
YV2 Sweden Volvo Trucks[9]
YV3 Sweden Volvo Buses[9]
YT9 Sweden Koenigsegg Automotive AB[10]
ZA9 Italy Bugatti
ZAM Italy Maserati[9]
ZAP Italy Piaggio[11]
ZAR Italy Alfa Romeo[9]
ZCF Italy Iveco[9]
ZFA Italy Fiat[9]
ZFF Italy Ferrari[9]
ZGA Italy IvecoBus[9]
ZHW Italy Lamborghini[9]
ZLA Italy Lancia[9]
1B United States Dodge[9]
1C United States Chrysler[9]
1F United States Ford[9]
1G United States General Motors[9]
1G1 United States Chevrolet
1G3 United States Oldsmobile
1G4 United States Buick[12]
1G9 United States Google
1GB United States Chevrolet incomplete vehicles[12]
1GC United States Chevrolet
1GD United States GMC incomplete vehicles[12]
1GM United States Pontiac
1HG United States Honda[9]
1J United States Jeep[9]
1L United States Lincoln[9]
1M United States Mercury[9]
1MR United States Continental[9]
1N United States Nissan
1VW United States Volkswagen[9]
1YV United States Mazda[9]
1ZV United States Ford
2DG Canada Ontario Drive & Gear
2F Canada Ford[9]
2Gx Canada General Motors[9]
2G1 Canada Chevrolet
2G2 Canada Pontiac
2G9 Canada Gnome Homes
2HG Canada Honda
2HH Canada Acura
2HJ Canada Honda
2HK Canada Honda
2HM Canada Hyundai
2L9 Canada Les Contenants Durabac
2LN Canada Lincoln[9]
2M Canada Mercury[9]
2T Canada Toyota
3F Mexico Ford
3G Mexico General Motors[9]
3HG Mexico Honda[9]
3HM Mexico Honda
3KP Mexico Kia[9]
3N Mexico Nissan[9]
3VW Mexico Volkswagen[9]
4F United States Mazda[9]
4J United States Mercedes-Benz[9]
4M United States Mercury
4S3 United States Subaru[9]
4S4 United States Subaru[9]
4S6 United States Honda
4T United States Toyota[9]
4US United States BMW[9]
5FN United States Honda[9]
5J6 United States Honda[9]
5L United States Lincoln
5N1 United States Nissan
5NM United States Hyundai
5NP United States Hyundai
5T United States Toyota[9]
5U United States BMW[9]
5X United States Hyundai/Kia
5YJ United States Tesla[9]
55 United States Mercedes-Benz[9]
6F Australia Ford[9]
6G Australia General Motors
6G1 Australia Chevrolet
6G2 Australia Pontiac
6H Australia Holden
6MM Australia Mitsubishi[9]
6T1 Australia Toyota
6T9 Australia Trailer
6U9 Australia Japanese Imports[13]
7A1 New Zealand Mitsubishi
7A3 New Zealand Honda
7A4 New Zealand Toyota
7A5 New Zealand Ford
7A8 New Zealand NZ Transport Agency (pre-2009)
7AT New Zealand NZ Transport Agency (post-2009)
8AP Argentina Fiat
8AF Argentina Ford[9]
8AG Argentina General Motors
8AW Argentina Volkswagen
8AJ Argentina Toyota
8A1 Argentina Renault
8AC Argentina Mercedes Benz
8BC Argentina Citroën
8AD Argentina Peugeot
8C3 Argentina Honda
8AT Argentina Iveco
829 Bolivia Quantum
9BD Brazil Fiat Automóveis
9BG Brazil General Motors
9BW Brazil Volkswagen[9]
9BF Brazil Ford
93H Brazil Honda
9BR Brazil Toyota
936 Brazil Peugeot
935 Brazil Citroën
93Y Brazil Renault
93X Brazil Souza Ramos - Mitsubishi / Suzuki
9BH Brazil Hyundai
95P Brazil CAOA / Hyundai
94D Brazil Nissan
94N Brazil RWM Brazil
98R Brazil Chery
988 Brazil Jeep
98M Brazil BMW
9BM Brazil Mercedes-Benz
99A Brazil Audi
99J Brazil Jaguar Land Rover
9C2 Brazil Honda Motorcycles[9]
9C6 Brazil Yamaha[9]
9CD Brazil Suzuki (motorcycles)
93W Brazil Fiat Professional
93Z Brazil Iveco
953 Brazil VW Trucks / MAN
9BS Brazil Scania
9BV Brazil Volvo Trucks
9FB Colombia Renault
9UJ Uruguay Chery
9UK Uruguay Lifan
9UW Uruguay Kia

See also


  1. ^ a b "Vehicle Identification Numbers (VINs)" . National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). Retrieved 2011-07-24.
  2. ^ "eCFR – Code of Federal Regulations – Title 49: Transportation – PART 565—VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (VIN) REQUIREMENTS" . Retrieved 2013-04-09.
  3. ^ "ComLaw Legislative Instruments – Vehicle Standard (Australian Design Rule 61/02 – Vehicle Marking) 2005 (ADR 61/02)" . Retrieved 2010-09-27.
  4. ^ ISO 3779:2009 Road vehicles—Vehicle identification number (VIN)—Content and structure
  5. ^ ISO 3780:2009 Road vehicles—World manufacturer identifier (WMI) code
  6. ^ "United States Federal VIN Requirements (Title 49, Chapter V, Part 565)" . Archived from the original on 2010-05-27. Retrieved 2010-09-27.
  7. ^ a b "Directive 76/114/EEC - Automotive - Enterprise and Industry" . European Commission. Archived from the original on 2013-09-30. Retrieved 2013-07-08.
  8. ^ a b "ISO 3780:2009 Road vehicles – World manufacturer identifier (WMI) code" . ISO. 2009-10-05. Retrieved 2010-09-27.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv "List of manufacturers of motor vehicles and their trailers - numerical - SV 3.2" (PDF). Germany: Kraftfahrt-Bundesamt. 2018-01-15. Retrieved 2019-01-08.
  10. ^ "Re: VIN Information pursuant to 49 CFR 565.7 KOENIGSEGG" (PDF). US: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. 2008-03-14. Retrieved 2019-03-13.
  11. ^ "Modern Vespa : VIN Decoding" . Retrieved 2019-10-08.
  12. ^ a b c "Revision to General Motors' Vehicle Identification Number decoding for 2016 Model Year" (PDF). US: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. 2015-01-12. Retrieved 2019-03-13.
  13. ^ "Importing vehicles without a 17 character VIN" . NEVDIS.

External links

Categories: Automotive technologies | Trade and industrial classification systems | 1981 introductions | Vehicle security systems | Country codes

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