Voiced alveolar fricative - en.LinkFang.org

Voiced alveolar fricative

(Redirected from Voiced_alveolar_sibilant)

The voiced alveolar fricatives are consonantal sounds. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents these sounds depends on whether a sibilant or non-sibilant fricative is being described.

Voiced coronal fricatives
Dental Denti-
Alveolar Post-alveolar
Retracted Retroflex Palato-
Sibilant plain ʐ ʒ ʑ
Non-sibilant ð ð̠/ð͇/ɹ̝ ɻ̝
tapped ɾ̞/ɹ̝̆

Voiced alveolar sibilant

Voiced alveolar sibilant
IPA Number133
Entity (decimal)z
Unicode (hex)U+007A
Audio sample
source · help
Voiced laminal dentalized alveolar sibilant
Voiced alveolar retracted sibilant
Entity (decimal)z​̺
Unicode (hex)U+007A U+033A

The voiced alveolar sibilant is common across European languages, but is relatively uncommon cross-linguistically compared to the voiceless variant. Only about 28% of the world's languages contain a voiced dental or alveolar sibilant. Moreover, 85% of the languages with some form of [z] are languages of Europe, Africa, or Western Asia.



Dentalized laminal alveolar

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Armenian Eastern[2] զարդ [z̪ɑɾt̪ʰ]  'decoration'
Azerbaijani[3] z [z̪ɔʁ] 'sprout'
Belarusian[4] база [ˈbäz̪ä] 'base' Contrasts with palatalized form. See Belarusian phonology
Bulgarian[5] езеро [ˈɛz̪ɛro] 'lake' Contrasts with palatalized form.
Czech[6] zima [ˈz̪ɪmä] 'winter' See Czech phonology
English Multicultural London[7] zoo [z̪ʏˑy̯] 'zoo' See English phonology
French[8][9] zèbre [z̪ɛbʁ] 'zebra' See French phonology
Hungarian[10] zálog [ˈz̪äːl̪oɡ] 'pledge' See Hungarian phonology
Kashubian[11] [example needed]
Kazakh[12] заң/zan' [z̪äŋ] 'law'
Kyrgyz[13] заң [z̪äŋ] 'law'
Latvian[14] zars [z̪ärs̪] 'branch' See Latvian phonology
Macedonian[15] зошто [ˈz̪ɔʃt̪ɔ] 'why' See Macedonian phonology
Mirandese daprendizaige [d̪əpɾẽd̪iˈz̪ajʒ(ɯ̽)] 'learning' Contrasts seven sibilants altogether, preserving medieval Ibero-Romance contrasts.
Polish[1][16] zero [ˈz̪ɛrɔ]  'zero' See Polish phonology
Portuguese Most speakers Estados Unidos [isˈt̪ad̪uz̪‿ʉˈnid͡zᶶ(ˢ)] 'United States' See Portuguese phonology
Romanian[17] zar [z̪är] 'dice' See Romanian phonology
Russian[18] заезжать / zaezžat' [z̪əɪˈʑʑætʲ]  'to pick up' Contrasts with palatalized form. See Russian phonology
Serbo-Croatian[19][20] зајам / zajam [z̪ǎːjäm] 'loan' See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Slovak zima [ˈz̪imä] 'winter'
Slovene[21] zima [ˈz̪ìːma] 'winter'
Turkish[8][22] z [ɟø̞̈z̪] 'eye' See Turkish phonology
Ukrainian[23] зуб [z̪ub] 'tooth' See Ukrainian phonology
Upper Sorbian[24] koza [ˈkoz̪ä] 'goat' See Upper Sorbian phonology
Uzbek[25] [example needed]
Vietnamese Hanoi[26] da [z̪äː] 'skin' See Vietnamese phonology

Non-retracted alveolar

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Adyghe зы [ˈzə]  'one'
Albanian zjarr [zjar] 'fire'
Arabic Standard[27] زائِر [ˈzaːʔir] 'visitor' See Arabic phonology
Assamese লকীয়া [zɔlɔkija] 'chili'
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic ܙܓ [ziɡa] 'bell'
Bengali নামা [namaz] 'Salah' See Bengali phonology
Breton iliz [iliz] 'church'
Chechen зурма / zurma [zuɾma] 'music'
Dutch[28][29] zaad [z̻aːt̻] 'seed' Laminal; may have only mid-to-low pitched friction in the Netherlands.[28][29] See Dutch phonology
English zoo [zuː] 'zoo' Absent from some Scottish and Asian dialects. See English phonology
Esperanto kuzo [ˈkuzo] 'cousin' See Esperanto phonology
Georgian[30] არი [ˈzɑɾi] 'bell'
Greek Athens dialect[31] ζάλη / záli [ˈz̻ali] 'dizziness' See Modern Greek phonology
Hebrew זאב [zeˈʔev] 'wolf' See Modern Hebrew phonology
Hindi ज़मीन [zəmiːn] 'land' See Hindustani phonology
Italian Marked accents of Emilia-Romagna[32] caso [ˈkäːz̺ʲo] 'case' Palatalized apical;[32] may be [ʐ] or [ʒ] instead.[32] See Italian phonology
Japanese[33] 全部 / zenbu [zembɯ] 'everything' See Japanese phonology
Kabardian зы [ˈzə]  'one'
Kalaw Lagaw Ya zilamiz [zilʌmiz] 'go'
Kashmiri ज़ानुन / زانُن [zaːnun] 'to know'
Malay beza [bezə] 'difference'
Maltese żelu [zelu] 'zeal'
Marathi [zər] 'if' See Marathi phonology.
Occitan Limousin jòune [ˈzɒwne] 'young' See Occitan phonology
Persian گوز [guz] 'fart'
Portuguese[34] casa [ˈkazɐ] 'house' See Portuguese phonology
Punjabi ਜ਼ਿੰਦਗੀ [zɪnˈd̪əgi] 'life'
Spanish Andalusian comunismo [ko̞muˈnizmo̞] 'Communism' Allophone of /s/ before voiced consonants, when it is not debuccalized to [h ~ ɦ]. Present in dialects which realize /s/ as a non-retracted alveolar fricative. Before /d/ it is dental [z̪].
Latin American
Mexican zapato [zäˈpät̪o̞] 'shoe' Some northern dialects. Corresponds to /s/ in other Mexican dialects, and to /θ/ in Peninsular Spanish. See Spanish phonology
Swahili lazima [lɑzimɑ] 'must'
Urdu زمین [zəmiːn] 'land' See Hindustani phonology
West Frisian[35] sizze [ˈsɪzə] 'to say' It never occurs in word-initial positions. See West Frisian phonology
Yi / ssy [zɹ̩˧] 'generation'
Yiddish zien [zin] 'son'
Zapotec Tilquiapan[36] guanaz [ɡʷanaz] 'went to grab'

Retracted alveolar

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Catalan[37][38] zel [ˈz̺ɛɫ] 'zeal' Apical. See Catalan phonology
Galician mesmo [ˈme̞z̺mo̞] 'same' Apical. Allophone of /s/ before voiced consonants. Before /d/ it is pronounced dentally [z̪].
Greek[39] μάζα / za [ˈmɐz̠ɐ] 'mass' See Modern Greek phonology
Italian Central Italy[40] caso [ˈkäːz̠o] 'case' Present in Lazio north of Cape Linaro,[40] most of Umbria[40] (save Perugia and the extreme south)[40] and Le Marche south of the Potenza.[40]
Northern Italy[41][42] Apical.[43] Present in many areas north of the La Spezia–Rimini Line.[44][45] See Italian phonology
Sicily[40] Present south and west of a line drawn from Syracuse to Cefalù.[40]
Low German[46] [example needed]
Maldivian zaraafaa [z̺aˈraːfaː] 'giraffe'
Mirandese eisistir [e̞jz̺is̺ˈtiɾ] 'to exist' Apical. Mirandese and neighboring Portuguese dialects were the only surviving oral tradition to preserve all seven mediaeval Ibero-Romance sibilants: ⟨ch⟩ //, ⟨x⟩ /ʃ/, ⟨g⟩/⟨j⟩ /ʒ/, ⟨c⟩/⟨ç⟩ //, ⟨z⟩ /z̪/, ⟨s⟩/-⟨ss⟩- //, -⟨s⟩- /z̺/
Occitan Gascon casèrna [kaz̺ɛrno] 'barracks' See Occitan phonology
Languedocien ser [bez̺e] 'to see'
Portuguese Coastal Northern European [example needed] Merges with non-retracted /z/. See Portuguese phonology
Inland Northern European [example needed] Apical. Contrasts with non-retracted /z/. See Portuguese phonology
Spanish Andean mismo [ˈmiz̺mo̞] 'same' Apical. Allophone of /s/ before voiced consonants. Before /d/ it is pronounced dentally [z̪]. See Spanish phonology
Paisa Region


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
German Standard[47] sauber [ˈzäʊ̯bɐ] 'clean' Varies between dentalized laminal, non-retracted laminal and non-retracted apical.[47] See Standard German phonology
Italian Standard[48] caso [ˈkäːzo] 'case' Varies between dentalized laminal and non-retracted apical.[48] See Italian phonology
Ticino[43] Varies between dentalized laminal and non-retracted apical.[49] Both variants may be labiodentalized.[43] See Italian phonology

Voiced alveolar non-sibilant fricative

Voiced alveolar non-sibilant fricative
Entity (decimal)ð​̠
Unicode (hex)U+00F0 U+0320
Audio sample
source · help
Voiced alveolar tapped fricative
IPA Number124 430
Audio sample
source · help

The voiced alveolar non-sibilant fricative is a consonantal sound. As the International Phonetic Alphabet does not have separate symbols for the alveolar consonants (the same symbol is used for all coronal places of articulation that aren't palatalized), it can represent this sound as in a number of ways including ⟨ð̠⟩ or ⟨ð͇⟩ (retracted or alveolarized [ð], respectively), ⟨ɹ̝⟩ (constricted [ɹ]), or ⟨⟩ (lowered [d]).

Few languages also have the voiced alveolar tapped fricative, which is simply a very brief apical alveolar non-sibilant fricative, with the tongue making the gesture for a tapped stop but not making full contact. This can be indicated in the IPA with the lowering diacritic to show full occlusion did not occur. Flapped fricatives are theoretically possible but are not attested.[50]



Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Aragonese Pyrenean[51] aire [ˈäi̯ɾ̞e̞] 'air' Tapped; common realization of /ɾ/.[51]
Czech[52] čtyři [ˈt͡ʃtɪɹ̝ɪ] 'four' May be a fricative trill[52] or a tap fricative instead.[53] It contrasts with /r/ and /ʒ/. See Czech phonology
Dahalo[54] [káð̠i] 'work' Apical; only weakly fricated. It is a common intervocalic allophone of /d̠/, and may be an approximant [ð̠˕] or simply a plosive [d] instead.[55]
Danish[56] Few speakers[57] ved [ve̝ð̠] 'at' Laminal.[56] Allophone of /d/ in the syllable coda; much more often realized as an approximant.[57] See Danish phonology
Dutch[58] voor [vöːɹ̝] 'for' One of many possible realizations of /r/; distribution unclear. See Dutch phonology
English Scouse[59] maid [meɪð̠] 'maid' Allophone of /d/. See English phonology
South African[60][61] round [ɹ̝æʊ̯nd] 'round' Apical,[61] present in some urban dialects.[60] See South African English phonology
Icelandic[62][63] bróðir [ˈprou̯ð̠ir] 'brother' Usually apical,[62][63] may be closer to an approximant. See Icelandic phonology
Italian Bologna[43] caso [ˈkäːð̠o] 'case' Laminal; a hypercorrective variant of /z/ for some young speakers. Either non-sibilant, or "not sibilant enough".[43] See Italian phonology
Sicily[64] terra [ˈt̪ɛɹ̝ä] 'earth' Apical; corresponds to /rr/ in standard Italian.[64] See Italian phonology
Manx mooar [muːɹ̝] 'big' Common word-final realization of /r/.
Spanish[65] aire [ˈäi̯ɾ̞e̞] 'air' Tapped; possible realization of /ɾ/.[65] See Spanish phonology
Swedish Central Standard[66][67] vandrare [²vän̪ːd̪ɹ̝äɹɛ] 'wanderer' Allophone of /r/ around the Stockholm area. See Swedish phonology
Tacana[68] [example needed] Tapped.[68]
Turkish[69] rüya [ˈɾ̞ÿjä] 'dream' Tapped; word-initial allophone of /ɾ/.[69] See Turkish phonology

See also


  1. ^ a b Puppel, Nawrocka-Fisiak & Krassowska (1977:149), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:154)
  2. ^ Kozintseva (1995), p. 7.
  3. ^ Axundov (1983), pp. 115, 136, 139–142.
  4. ^ Padluzhny (1989), p. 47.
  5. ^ Klagstad Jr. (1958), p. 46.
  6. ^ Palková (1994), p. 228.
  7. ^ "english speech services | Accent of the Year / sibilants in MLE" . Retrieved 2 December 2015.
  8. ^ a b Adams (1975), p. 288.
  9. ^ Fougeron & Smith (1999), p. 79.
  10. ^ Szende (1999), p. 104.
  11. ^ Jerzy Treder. "Fonetyka i fonologia" . Archived from the original on 2016-03-04.
  12. ^ Kara (2002), p. 10.
  13. ^ Kara (2003), p. 11.
  14. ^ Nau (1998), p. 6.
  15. ^ Lunt (1952), p. 1.
  16. ^ Rocławski (1976), pp. 149.
  17. ^ Ovidiu Drăghici. "Limba Română contemporană. Fonetică. Fonologie. Ortografie. Lexicologie" (PDF). Retrieved April 19, 2013.[permanent dead link]
  18. ^ Chew (2003), p. 67.
  19. ^ Kordić (2006), p. 5.
  20. ^ Landau et al. (1999), p. 67.
  21. ^ Pretnar & Tokarz (1980:21)
  22. ^ Zimmer & Orgun (1999), p. 154.
  23. ^ Buk, Solomija; Mačutek, Ján; Rovenchak, Andrij (2008). "Some properties of the Ukrainian writing system". Glottometrics. 16 (16): 63–79. arXiv:0802.4198 . Bibcode:2008arXiv0802.4198B . (PDF ram-verlag.eu )
  24. ^ Šewc-Schuster (1984), pp. 22, 38, 39.
  25. ^ Sjoberg (1963), p. 11.
  26. ^ Thompson (1987), pp. 5 and 7.
  27. ^ Thelwall (1990), p. 37.
  28. ^ a b Gussenhoven (1999), p. 75.
  29. ^ a b Collins & Mees (2003), p. 190.
  30. ^ Shosted & Chikovani (2006), p. 255.
  31. ^ Adams (1975), p. 283.
  32. ^ a b c Canepari (1992), p. 73.
  33. ^ Okada (1999), p. 117.
  34. ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995), p. 91.
  35. ^ Sipma (1913), p. 16.
  36. ^ Merrill (2008), p. 108.
  37. ^ Carbonell & Llisterri (1992), p. 54.
  38. ^ Torreblanca (1988), p. 347.
  39. ^ Arvaniti (2007), p. 12.
  40. ^ a b c d e f g Adams (1975), p. 286.
  41. ^ Adams (1975), pp. 285–286.
  42. ^ Canepari (1992), p. 71-72.
  43. ^ a b c d e Canepari (1992), p. 72.
  44. ^ Canepari (1992), p. 71.
  45. ^ Adams (1975), p. 285.
  46. ^ Adams (1975), p. 289.
  47. ^ a b Mangold (2005), p. 50.
  48. ^ a b Canepari (1992), p. 68.
  49. ^ Canepari (1992), pp. 68 and 72.
  50. ^ Laver (1994), p. 263.
  51. ^ a b Mott (2007), pp. 104, 112.
  52. ^ a b Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996), pp. 228–230 and 233.
  53. ^ Šimáčková, Podlipský & Chládková (2012), p. 226.
  54. ^ Maddieson et al. (1993:34)
  55. ^ Maddieson et al. (1993:28, 34)
  56. ^ a b Jespersen (1897–1899:?), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:144)
  57. ^ a b Bauer et al. (1980:?), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:144): "Only in a very distinct Danish – as from the stage of the Royal Theater – do we get a fricative."
  58. ^ Collins & Mees (2003:199). Authors do not say where exactly it is used.
  59. ^ Watson (2007), pp. 352–353.
  60. ^ a b Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996), p. 236.
  61. ^ a b Ogden (2009), p. 92.
  62. ^ a b Pétursson (1971:?), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:145)
  63. ^ a b Grønnum (2005:139)
  64. ^ a b Canepari (1992), pp. 64–65.
  65. ^ a b Mott (2007), p. 112.
  66. ^ Engstrand (1999), pp. 141.
  67. ^ Engstrand (2004), p. 167.
  68. ^ a b "UPSID r[F" . Retrieved 24 January 2016.
  69. ^ a b Yavuz & Balcı (2011), p. 25.


  • Adams, Douglas Q. (1975), "The Distribution of Retracted Sibilants in Medieval Europe", Language, 51 (2): 282–292, doi:10.2307/412855 , JSTOR 412855
  • Arvaniti, Amalia (2007), "Greek Phonetics: The State of the Art" (PDF), Journal of Greek Linguistics, 8: 97–208, CiteSeerX , doi:10.1075/jgl.8.08arv , archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-12-11
  • Axundov, Ağamusa (1983), Azərbaycan dilinin fonetikasi, Baku
  • Bauer, Laurie; Dienhart, John M.; Hartvigson, Hans H.; Jakobsen, Leif Kvistgaard (1980), American English Pronunciation: Supplement, Comparison with Danish., Copenhagen: Gyldendalske Boghandel, OCLC 54869978
  • Bertinetto, Marco; Loporcaro, Michele (2005), "The sound pattern of Standard Italian, as compared with the varieties spoken in Florence, Milan and Rome", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 35 (2): 131–151, doi:10.1017/S0025100305002148
  • Canepari, Luciano (1992), Il MªPi – Manuale di pronuncia italiana [Handbook of Italian Pronunciation] (in Italian), Bologna: Zanichelli, ISBN 978-88-08-24624-0
  • Carbonell, Joan F.; Llisterri, Joaquim (1992), "Catalan", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 22 (1–2): 53–56, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004618
  • Chew, Peter A. (2003), A computational phonology of Russian, Universal Publishers
  • Collins, Beverley; Mees, Inger M. (2003) [First published 1981], The Phonetics of English and Dutch (PDF) (5th ed.), Leiden: Brill Publishers, ISBN 978-9004103405
  • Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena (1995), "European Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 25 (2): 90–94, doi:10.1017/S0025100300005223
  • Engstrand, Olle (2004), Fonetikens grunder (in Swedish), Lund: Studenlitteratur, ISBN 978-91-44-04238-1
  • Engstrand, Olle (1999), "Swedish", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the usage of the International Phonetic Alphabet., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 140–142, ISBN 978-0-521-63751-0
  • Fougeron, Cecile; Smith, Caroline L. (1999), "French", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge University Press, pp. 73–76, ISBN 978-0-521-65236-0
  • Grønnum, Nina (2005), Fonetik og fonologi, Almen og Dansk (3rd ed.), Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag, ISBN 978-87-500-3865-8
  • Gussenhoven, Carlos (1999), "Dutch", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 74–77, ISBN 978-0-521-65236-0
  • Honeybone, P (2001), "Lenition inhibition in Liverpool English" , English Language and Linguistics, 5 (2): 213–249, doi:10.1017/S1360674301000223
  • Jespersen, Otto (1897–1899), Fonetik, Copenhagen: Det Schubotheske Forlag
  • Kara, Dávid Somfai (2002), Kazak, Lincom Europa, ISBN 9783895864704
  • Kara, Dávid Somfai (2003), Kyrgyz, Lincom Europa, ISBN 978-3895868436
  • Klagstad Jr., Harold L. (1958), The Phonemic System of Colloquial Standard Bulgarian, American Association of Teachers of Slavic and East European Languages, pp. 42–54
  • Kordić, Snježana (2006), Serbo-Croatian, Languages of the World/Materials; 148, Munich & Newcastle: Lincom Europa, ISBN 978-3-89586-161-1
  • Kozintseva, Natalia (1995), Modern Eastern Armenian, Lincom Europa, ISBN 978-3895860355
  • Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-631-19815-4.
  • Landau, Ernestina; Lončarić, Mijo; Horga, Damir; Škarić, Ivo (1999), "Croatian", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 66–69, ISBN 978-0-521-65236-0
  • Laver, John (1994), Principles of Phonetics, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-45655-5
  • Lin, Hua (2001), A Grammar of Mandarin Chinese, Lincom Europa, ISBN 978-3-89586-642-5
  • Lunt, Horace G. (1952), Grammar of the Macedonian Literary Language, Skopje
  • Maddieson, Ian (1984), Patterns of Sound, Cambridge University Press
  • Maddieson, Ian; Spajić, Siniša; Sands, Bonny; Ladefoged, Peter (1993), "Phonetic structures of Dahalo" , in Maddieson, Ian (ed.), UCLA working papers in phonetics: Fieldwork studies of targeted languages, 84, Los Angeles: The UCLA Phonetics Laboratory Group, pp. 25–65
  • Mangold, Max (2005) [First published 1962], Das Aussprachewörterbuch (6th ed.), Mannheim: Dudenverlag, ISBN 978-3-411-04066-7
  • Marotta, Giovanna; Barth, Marlen (2005), "Acoustic and sociolingustic aspects of lenition in Liverpool English" (PDF), Studi Linguistici e Filologici Online, 3 (2): 377–413
  • Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), "Castilian Spanish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (2): 255–259, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001373
  • Merrill, Elizabeth (2008), "Tilquiapan Zapotec" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 38 (1): 107–114, doi:10.1017/S0025100308003344
  • Mott, Brian (2007), "Chistabino (Pyrenean Aragonese)" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 37 (1): 103–114, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002842
  • Nau, Nicole (1998), Latvian, Lincom Europa, ISBN 978-3-89586-228-1
  • Ogden, Richard (2009), An Introduction to English Phonetics , Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press Ltd., ISBN 978-0-7486-2540-6
  • Okada, Hideo (1999), "Japanese" , in International Phonetic Association (ed.), Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the Use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge University Press, pp. 117–119, ISBN 978-0-52163751-0
  • Padluzhny, Ped (1989), Fanetyka belaruskai litaraturnai movy, ISBN 978-5-343-00292-8
  • Palková, Zdena (1994), Fonetika a fonologie češtiny, ISBN 978-8070668436
  • Pandeli, H; Eska, J; Ball, Martin; Rahilly, J (1997), "Problems of phonetic transcription: the case of the Hiberno-English slit-t", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 27 (1–2): 65–75, doi:10.1017/S0025100300005430
  • Pétursson, Magnus (1971), "Étude de la réalisation des consonnes islandaises þ, ð, s, dans la prononciation d'un sujet islandais à partir de la radiocinématographie", Phonetica, 33 (4): 203–216, doi:10.1159/000259344
  • Pretnar, Tone; Tokarz, Emil (1980), Slovenščina za Poljake: Kurs podstawowy języka słoweńskiego, Katowice: Uniwersytet Śląski
  • Puppel, Stanisław; Nawrocka-Fisiak, Jadwiga; Krassowska, Halina (1977), A handbook of Polish pronunciation for English learners , Warszawa: Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe
  • Qafisheh, Hamdi A. (1977), A short reference grammar of Gulf Arabic, Tucson, Arizona: University of Arizona Press, ISBN 978-0-8165-0570-8
  • Rocławski, Bronisław (1976), Zarys fonologii, fonetyki, fonotaktyki i fonostatystyki współczesnego języka polskiego, Gdańsk: Wydawnictwo Uczelniane Uniwersytetu Gdańskiego
  • Šewc-Schuster, Hinc (1984), Gramatika hornjo-serbskeje rěče, Budyšin: Ludowe nakładnistwo Domowina
  • Shosted, Ryan K.; Chikovani, Vakhtang (2006), "Standard Georgian" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 36 (2): 255–264, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002659
  • Šimáčková, Šárka; Podlipský, Václav Jonáš; Chládková, Kateřina (2012), "Czech spoken in Bohemia and Moravia" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 42 (2): 225–232, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000102
  • Sipma, Pieter (1913), Phonology & grammar of modern West Frisian , London: Oxford University Press
  • Sjoberg, Andrée F. (1963), Uzbek Structural Grammar, Uralic and Altaic Series, 18, Bloomington: Indiana University
  • Szende, Tamás (1999), "Hungarian", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 104–107, ISBN 978-0-521-65236-0
  • Thelwall, Robin (1990), "Arabic", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 20 (2): 37–41, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004266
  • Thompson, Laurence C. (1987), A Vietnamese Reference Grammar, ISBN 978-0-8248-1117-4
  • Torreblanca, Máximo (1988), "Latín Basium, Castellano Beso, Catalán Bes, Portugués Beijo", Hispanic Review, 56 (3): 343–348, doi:10.2307/474023 , JSTOR 474023
  • Watson, Kevin (2007), "Liverpool English" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 37 (3): 351–360, doi:10.1017/s0025100307003180
  • Wheeler, Max W. (2005), The Phonology Of Catalan, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-925814-7
  • Yavuz, Handan; Balcı, Ayla (2011), Turkish Phonology and Morphology, Eskişehir: Anadolu Üniversitesi, ISBN 978-975-06-0964-0
  • Zimmer, Karl; Orgun, Orhan (1999), "Turkish" (PDF), Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 154–158, ISBN 978-0-521-65236-0

External links

Categories: Sibilant consonants | Fricative consonants | Alveolar consonants | Central consonants | Voiced oral consonants

Source: Wikipedia - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiced alveolar fricative (Authors [History])    License : CC-by-sa-3.0

Changes: All pictures and most design elements which are related to those, were removed. Some Icons were replaced by FontAwesome-Icons. Some templates were removed (like “article needs expansion) or assigned (like “hatnotes”). CSS classes were either removed or harmonized.
Wikipedia specific links which do not lead to an article or category (like “Redlinks”, “links to the edit page”, “links to portals”) were removed. Every external link has an additional FontAwesome-Icon. Beside some small changes of design, media-container, maps, navigation-boxes, spoken versions and Geo-microformats were removed.

Information as of: 17.05.2020 02:01:29 CEST - Please note: Because the given content is automatically taken from Wikipedia at the given point of time, a manual verification was and is not possible. Therefore LinkFang.org does not guarantee the accuracy and actuality of the acquired content. If there is an Information which is wrong at the moment or has an inaccurate display please feel free to contact us: email.
See also: Imprint & Privacy policy.