Voiced glottal fricative

Voiced glottal fricative
IPA Number147
Entity (decimal)ɦ
Unicode (hex)U+0266
Audio sample
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The breathy-voiced glottal transition, commonly called a voiced glottal fricative, is a type of sound used in some spoken languages which patterns like a fricative or approximant consonant phonologically, but often lacks the usual phonetic characteristics of a consonant. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɦ⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is h\.

In many languages, [ɦ] has no place or manner of articulation. Thus, it has been described as a breathy-voiced counterpart of the following vowel from a phonetic point of view. However, its characteristics are also influenced by the preceding vowels and whatever other sounds surround it. Therefore, it can be described as a segment whose only consistent feature is its breathy voice phonation in such languages.[1] It may have real glottal constriction in a number of languages (such as Finnish[2]), making it a fricative.

Lamé contrasts voiceless and voiced glottal fricatives.[3]



Features of the voiced glottal fricative:


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Azeri Standard hkəm [mœːɦcæm] 'solid'
Basque Northeastern dialects[5] hemen [ɦemen] 'here' Can be voiceless [h] instead.
Chinese Wu 閒話 [ɦɛɦʊ] 'language'
Czech hlava [ˈɦlava] 'head' See Czech phonology
Danish[3] Mon det har regnet? [- te̝ ɦɑ -] 'I wonder if it has rained.' Common allophone of /h/ between vowels.[3] See Danish phonology
Dutch[6] haat [ɦaːt] 'hate' See Dutch phonology
English Australian[7] behind [bəˈɦɑe̯nd] 'behind' Allophone of /h/ between voiced sounds.[7][8] See Australian English phonology and English phonology
Received Pronunciation[8] [bɪˈɦaɪ̯nd]
Broad South African hand [ˈɦɛn̪t̪] 'hand' Some speakers, only before a stressed vowel.
Estonian raha [rɑɦɑ] 'money' Allophone of /h/ between voiced sounds. See Estonian phonology and Finnish phonology
French Quebec[9] manger [mãɦe] 'to eat' Limited to a minority of speakers. Can also be realized as a voiceless [h].
Hebrew מַהֵר [mäɦe̞r]  'fast' Occurs as an allophone of /h/ between voiced sounds. See Modern Hebrew phonology
Hindustani हूँ / ہوں [ɦu᷉] 'am' See Hindustani phonology
Kalabari[10] hóín [ɦóĩ́] 'introduction'
Korean 여행 / yeohaeng [jʌɦεŋ] 'travel' Occurs as an allophone of /h/ between voiced sounds. See Korean phonology
Limburgish Some dialects[11][12] hart [ɦɑ̽ʀ̝t] 'heart' Voiceless [h] in other dialects. The example word is from the Maastrichtian dialect.
Lithuanian humoras [ˈɦʊmɔrɐs̪] 'humour' Often pronounced instead of [ɣ]. See Lithuanian phonology
Polish Podhale dialect hydrant [ˈɦɘ̟d̪rän̪t̪] 'fire hydrant' Contrasts with /x/. Standard Polish possesses only /x/. See Polish phonology
Kresy dialect
Portuguese Many Brazilian dialects esse rapaz [ˈesi ɦaˈpajs] 'this youth' (m.) Allophone of /ʁ/. [h, ɦ] are marginal sounds to many speakers, particularly out of Brazil. See Portuguese phonology and guttural R
Many speakers hashi [ɦɐˈʃi] 'chopsticks'
Some Brazilian[13][14] dialects mesmo [ˈmeɦmu] 'same' Corresponds to either /s/ or /ʃ/ (depending on dialect) in the syllable coda. Might also be deleted.
Cearense dialect[15] gente [ˈɦẽt͡ʃi] 'people' Debuccalized from [ʒ], [v] or [z].
Mineiro dialect dormir [doɦˈmi(h)] 'to sleep' Before other voiced consonants, otherwise realized as [h].
Punjabi ਹਵਾ [ɦə̀ʋä̌ː] 'air'
Romanian Transylvanian dialects[16] haină [ˈɦainə] 'coat' Corresponds to [h] in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology
Silesian hangrys [ˈɦaŋɡrɨs] 'gooseberry'
Slovak hora [ˈɦɔ̝rä]  'mountain'
Slovene Littoral dialects hora [ˈɦɔra] 'mountain' This is a general feature of all Slovene dialects west of the Škofja LokaPlanina line. Corresponds to [ɡ] in other dialects.
Rovte dialects
Sylheti ꠢꠥꠐꠇꠤ [ɦuʈki] 'dried fish'
Ukrainian голос [ˈɦɔlɔs] 'voice' Also described as [ʕ]. See Ukrainian phonology
Zulu ihhashi [iːˈɦaːʃi] 'horse'

See also



  • April, Pascale (2007), "The Posteriorization of Palato-Alveolar Fricatives in Quebec French: An Effort-Based Approach", Cahiers Linguistiques d'Ottawa, 35: 1–24
  • Cox, Felicity; Fletcher, Janet (2017) [First published 2012], Australian English Pronunciation and Transcription (2nd ed.), Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-1-316-63926-9
  • Grønnum, Nina (2005), Fonetik og fonologi, Almen og Dansk (3rd ed.), Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag, ISBN 87-500-3865-6
  • Gussenhoven, Carlos (1992), "Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 22 (2): 45–47, doi:10.1017/S002510030000459X
  • Gussenhoven, Carlos; Aarts, Flor (1999), "The dialect of Maastricht" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, University of Nijmegen, Centre for Language Studies, 29: 155–166, doi:10.1017/S0025100300006526
  • Harry, Otelemate (2003), "Kalaḅarị-Ịjo", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (1): 113–120, doi:10.1017/S002510030300121X
  • Hualde, José Ignacio; Ortiz de Urbina, Jon, eds. (2003), A Grammar of Basque, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, ISBN 3-11-017683-1
  • Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996), The Sounds of the World's Languages, Oxford: Blackwell, ISBN 0-631-19814-8
  • Laufer, Asher (1991), "Phonetic Representation: Glottal Fricatives", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 21 (2): 91–93, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004448
  • Pop, Sever (1938), Micul Atlas Linguistic Român, Muzeul Limbii Române Cluj
  • Roach, Peter (2004), "British English: Received Pronunciation", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 34 (2): 239–245, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001768
  • Verhoeven, Jo (2007), "The Belgian Limburg dialect of Hamont", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 37 (2): 219–225, doi:10.1017/S0025100307002940

External links

Categories: Glottal consonants | Approximant-fricative consonants | Pulmonic consonants | Voiced oral consonants

Information as of: 17.06.2020 10:43:29 CEST

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