Voiceless bilabial stop


Voiceless bilabial stop
p
IPA Number101
Encoding
Entity (decimal)p
Unicode (hex)U+0070
X-SAMPAp
Braille
Audio sample
source · help

The voiceless bilabial stop is a type of consonantal sound used in most spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨p⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is p.

Contents

Features


Features of the voiceless bilabial stop:

Varieties


IPA Description
p plain p
aspirated p
velarized p
palatalized p
labialized p
p with no audible release
voiced p
tense p
ejective p

Occurrence


The stop [p] is missing from about 10% of languages that have a [b]. (See voiced velar stop for another such gap.) This is an areal feature of the "circum-Saharan zone" (Africa north of the equator, including the Arabian peninsula). It is not known how old this areal feature is, and whether it might be a recent phenomenon due to Arabic as a prestige language (Arabic lost its /p/ in prehistoric times), or whether Arabic was itself affected by a more ancient areal pattern. It is found in other areas as well; for example, in Europe, Proto-Celtic and Old Basque are both reconstructed as having [b] but no [p].

Nonetheless, the [p] sound is very common cross-linguistically. Most languages have at least a plain [p], and some distinguish more than one variety. Many Indo-Aryan languages, such as Hindustani, have a two-way contrast between the aspirated [pʰ] and the plain [p] (also transcribed as [p˭] in extensions to the IPA).

Examples

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Adyghe паӏо [paːʔʷa]  'hat'
Arabic Algerian پاپيش [paːpiːʃ] 'beautiful girls'
Armenian Eastern[1] պապիկ [pɑpik]  'grandpa' Contrasts with aspirated form
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic pata [paːta] 'face'
Basque harrapatu [(h)arapatu] 'to catch'
Bengali Eastern পানি [paniː] 'water' Contrasts with aspirated form. See Bengali phonology
Chinese Cantonese 爆炸 / baauja [paːu˧ t͡saː˧] 'explosion' Contrasts with aspirated form. See Cantonese phonology
Mandarin 爆炸 / bàozhà [pɑʊ˥˩ tʂa˥˩] Contrasts with aspirated form. See Mandarin phonology
Catalan[2] parlar [pərˈɫa] 'to speak' See Catalan phonology
Czech pes [pɛs] 'dog' See Czech phonology
Danish Standard[3] bog [ˈpɔ̽ʊ̯ˀ] 'book' Usually transcribed in IPA with ⟨⟩ or ⟨b⟩. Contrasts with aspirated form, which is usually transcribed in IPA with ⟨⟩ or ⟨p⟩. See Danish phonology
Dutch[4] plicht [plɪxt] 'duty' See Dutch phonology
English pack [pʰæk] 'pack' See English phonology
Esperanto tempo [ˈtempo] 'time' See Esperanto phonology
Filipino pato [paˈto] 'duck'
Finnish pappa [ˈpɑpːɑ] 'grandpa' See Finnish phonology
French[5] pomme [pɔm] 'apple' See French phonology
German Pack [pʰak] 'pile' See Standard German phonology
Greek πόδι / pódi [ˈpo̞ði] 'leg' See Modern Greek phonology
Gujarati [pəɡ] 'foot' See Gujarati phonology
Hebrew פּקיד [pakid] 'clerk' See Modern Hebrew phonology
Hindustani पल / پرچم [pəl] 'moment' Contrasts with aspirated form. See Hindustani phonology
Hungarian pápa [ˈpaːpɒ] 'pope' See Hungarian phonology
Italian[6] papà [paˈpa] 'dad' See Italian phonology
Japanese[7] ポスト / posuto [posɯto] 'mailbox' See Japanese phonology
Kabardian пэ [pa]  'nose'
Korean / bit [pit̚] 'light' See Korean phonology
Kurdish Northern por [ˈpʰoːɾ] 'hair' See Kurdish phonology
Central پیرۆزە [pʰiːɾoːzæ] 'lammergeier'
Southern پۊنگه [pʰʉːŋa] 'pennyroyal'
Lakota púza [ˈpʊza] 'dry'
Luxembourgish[8] bëlleg [ˈpələɕ] 'cheap' Less often voiced [b]. It is usually transcribed /b/, and contrasts with voiceless aspirated form, which is usually transcribed /p/.[8] See Luxembourgish phonology
Macedonian пее [pɛː] 'sing' See Macedonian phonology
Malay panas [pänäs] 'hot'
Maltese aptit [apˈtit] 'appetite'
Marathi पाऊस [pɑːˈuːs] 'rain' See Marathi phonology
Mutsun po·čor [poːt͡ʃor] 'a sore'
Norwegian pappa [pɑpːɑ] 'dad' See Norwegian phonology
Pashto پانير [pɑˈnir] 'cheese'
Persian پول [pul] 'money'
Pirahã pibaóí [ˈpìbàóí̯] 'otter'
Polish[9] pas [päs]  'belt' See Polish phonology
Portuguese[10] pai [paj] 'father' See Portuguese phonology
Punjabi ਪੱਤਾ [pət̪ːäː] 'leaf'
Romanian pas [pas] 'step' See Romanian phonology
Russian[11] плод [pɫot̪] 'fruit' Contrasts with palatalized form. See Russian phonology
Serbo-Croatian[12] пиће / piće [pǐːt͡ɕě] 'drink' See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Slovak pes [pɛ̝s] 'dog'
Spanish[13] peso [ˈpe̞so̞] 'weight' See Spanish phonology
Swahili pombe [ˈpoᵐbɛ] 'beer'
Swedish apa [ˈɑːˌpa] 'monkey' See Swedish phonology
Tsez пу [pʰu] 'side' Contrasts with ejective form.
Turkish kap [kʰäp] 'pot' See Turkish phonology
Ukrainian[14] павук [pɐˈβ̞uk] 'spider' See Ukrainian phonology
Vietnamese[15] nhíp [ɲip˧ˀ˥] 'tweezers' See Vietnamese phonology
West Frisian panne [ˈpɔnə] 'pan'
Yi / ba [pa˧] 'exchange' Contrasts aspirated and unaspirated forms.
Central Alaskan Yup'ik panik [panik] 'daughter'
Zapotec Tilquiapan[16] pan [paŋ] 'bread'

See also


Notes


References


  • Basbøll, Hans (2005), The Phonology of Danish, ISBN 0-203-97876-5
  • Carbonell, Joan F.; Llisterri, Joaquim (1992), "Catalan", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 22 (1–2): 53–56, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004618
  • Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena (1995), "European Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 25 (2): 90–94, doi:10.1017/S0025100300005223
  • Danyenko, Andrii; Vakulenko, Serhii (1995), Ukrainian , Lincom Europa, ISBN 9783929075083
  • Dum-Tragut, Jasmine (2009), Armenian: Modern Eastern Armenian, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company
  • Fougeron, Cecile; Smith, Caroline L (1993), "Illustrations of the IPA:French", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 23 (2): 73–76, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004874
  • Gilles, Peter; Trouvain, Jürgen (2013), "Luxembourgish" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (1): 67–74, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000278
  • Gussenhoven, Carlos (1992), "Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 22 (2): 45–47, doi:10.1017/S002510030000459X
  • Jassem, Wiktor (2003), "Polish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (1): 103–107, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001191
  • Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), "Castilian Spanish" , Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (2): 255–259, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001373
  • Merrill, Elizabeth (2008), "Tilquiapan Zapotec" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 38 (1): 107–114, doi:10.1017/S0025100308003344
  • Okada, Hideo (1999), "Japanese" , in International Phonetic Association (ed.), Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the Use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge University Press, pp. 117–119, ISBN 978-0-52163751-0
  • Padgett, Jaye (2003), "Contrast and Post-Velar Fronting in Russian", Natural Language & Linguistic Theory, 21 (1): 39–87, doi:10.1023/A:1021879906505
  • Rogers, Derek; d'Arcangeli, Luciana (2004), "Italian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 34 (1): 117–121, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001628
  • Thompson, Laurence (1959), "Saigon phonemics", Language, 35 (3): 454–476, doi:10.2307/411232 , JSTOR 411232
  • Landau, Ernestina; Lončarić, Mijo; Horga, Damir; Škarić, Ivo (1999), "Croatian", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 66–69, ISBN 0-521-65236-7

External links









Categories: Bilabial stops | Voiceless stops | Pulmonic consonants | Labial–coronal consonants




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